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Saiyadina Ali Ibn Abi Talib R.A
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Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب) (c. 21st March 598 – 661) was the fourth caliph or successor of Muhammad. He was also the Prophet's cousin, and, after marrying Fatima, his son-in-law as well. He is regarded by majority Sunni Muslims as one of the Khulafa-e-Rashidun, the exemplary first four rightly guided caliphs.

 

Ali was born at Mecca where his father, Abu Talib, was an uncle of the Prophet. Ali himself was adopted by Muhammad and educated under his care.

In 622, the year of Muhammad's flight to Medina, Ali risked his life by sleeping in the Prophet's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot, so that the Prophet could flee in safety. In addition, Ali delayed his own departure from Medina to carry out Muhammad's instructions to restore all the goods and properties that had been entrusted to him as a merchant to their owners in Mecca.

From 622 to Muhammad's death in 632, Ali was one of Muhammad's trusted warriors, active in military campaigns to protect and extend the Muslim community.

 

Hazrat Ali Murtuda (Radi Allah Unho)

ELECTIONS

After Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) passed away, Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was elected as the fourth

Caliph by the Muslims. During the period of the first three Caliphs, Madinatul Munawwarah continued to be the capital

of the Muslim world, but Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) transferred the Islamic capital to Kufah in Iraq.

EARLY LIFE

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was the son of Abu Taalib, an uncle of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi

wasallam). Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was married to Sayyadah Bibi Fathima (radi Allahu anha), the daughter of

Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They had 3 sons, Sayyiduna Hassan, Sayyiduna Hussain and

Sayyiduna Mohsin (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in).

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) took part in the battle of Badr, Khandaq and Khaibar. At Khaibar, it was Sayyiduna Ali

(radi Allahu anhu) who subdued the Jews with his furious assault. He also held many important positions during the

time of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and the first 3 Caliphs before him.

He had a love for learning and was a great and learned person himself. He had been given the title of "Baabul

I'lm"or "Gate of Learning" by Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He was also called "Asaadullah"

or "Lion of Allah."

OPPOSITION

The situation in Madinatul Munawwarah after the murder (Shahaadah) of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) was

serious. Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu's) first task was to rid Madinatul Munawwarah of the rebels and to return the

situation to normal.

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was able to force the rebels to withdraw from Madinatul Munawwarah and to

establish peace and order in the city. The powerful governor of Syria, Sayyiduna Mu'awiyah (radi Allahu anhu),

challenged Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) and refused to pay homage to him. Sayyiduna Mu'awiyah (radi Allahu

anhu) insisted that Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) arrest the murderers of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) and

hand them over to him.

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was a man with a deep sense of justice and did not want to accuse the wrong

people. He needed a peaceful period to trace the culprits. But, Sayyiduna Mu'awiyah (radi Allahu anhu) began

accusing him of protecting the murderers, and in this way the old enmity between the two families were revived.

SAYYIDUNA MU'AWIYAH (RADI ALLAHU ANHU)

Unlike most of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu's) governors, Sayyiduna Muaawiyah (radi Allahu anhu) displayed

great administrative ability and was very popular. He was a God-fearing man and especially known for his mercy.

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was very strict in piety and straight forward. Sayyiduna Muaawiyah (radi Allahu anhu)

declared his disobedience to him, because he felt that he was better qualified to lead the Muslim world.

BATTLE OF THE CAMEL

Another serious development took place. Sayyadah Aishah (radi Allahu anha) and two leading Sahaba, Sayyiduna

Talha and Sayyiduna Zubair (radi Allahu anhuma) declared their opposition to the Khilaafat of Sayyiduna Ali (radi

Allahu anhu). They left Madinatul Munawwarah for Makkatul Mukarramah and from there travelled to Basrah where

they rallied men and new supporters.

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) had to crush all opposition. A bloody battle took place near Basrah on the 9th of

December 656 A.C. This battle was sparked off by a third force who were the real troublemakers. Just before the

battle, both parties had already reached an agreement to settle the dispute. But this third force, the real assassinators

of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu), launched an overnight attack on both camps simultaneously. Each side were

under the impression that the other had attacked. The battle began. Several thousand men were lost including the

two Sahaba. Sayyadah Aishah (radi Allahu anha) was safe. She was riding a camel during the battle-hence the name

"Battle of the Camel." Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) treated her in a most noble and dignified manner and

respectfully sent her back to Madinatul Munawwarah. She praised him and deeply regretted opposing Sayyiduna Ali

(radi Allahu anhu). Kufa was now made the capital of the Islamic world.

BATTLE OF SIFFIN

Sayyiduna Muaawiyah (radi Allahu anhu) rallied an army to face Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu). A battle took place

at Siffin on the Syrian border in the July of 567 A.C. Sayyiduna Muaawiyah (radi Allahu anhu) was no match for

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) and began to retreat. By the clever proposal of Sayyiduna Amr bin Al As (radi Allahu

anhu), the retreating army raised pieces of the Holy Quran on their spears demanding judgement between the two

parties. Many pious Muslims on the side of Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) refused to fight seeing the Holy Quran

displayed in the air.

JUDGEMENT

Two men, one from each side, were appointed to settle the dispute. Sayyiduna Abu Musa (radi Allahu anhu), a pious

Sahaba from Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu's) side, and the skilled Sayyiduna Amr (radi Allahu anhu) from Sayyiduna

Muaawiyah (radi Allahu anhu's) side. Sayyiduna Musa (radi Allahu anhu) declared in front of the Muslims that it was

decided to recommend the removal of both Sayyiduna Ali and Sayyiduna Muaawiyah (radi Allahu anhuma) and that

the Muslims should select another man for the Khilaafat. Sayyiduna Amr (radi Allahu anhu) replied that: "He has

declared the removal of his leader, while I would conform Muaawiyah as the Caliph." Chaos followed.

KHAARIJEES

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) prepared to meet Sayyiduna Muaawiyah (radi Allahu anhu) again in battle, but he

was moved from his task by a serious conflict that occurred among his men. Some narrow-minded people accused

Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) of accepting a man-made judgement. Their slogan was: "There is no judgment but

with Allah." They declared that Sayyiduna Ali, Sayyiduna Muaawiyah and Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhumul

ajma'in) were unbelievers and that Jihad should be declared against them. Ever since this event, they have been

known as the "Khaarijees", which means, "those who left the fold." They maintained that the Khilaafat should be

given to the most eligible Muslim, regardless of his origin. The Kharijees are not regarded as Muslims.

ASSASSINATION

On the 17th of July 659 A.C., Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) overcame the Khaarijees in a battle near Nahrawan, in

which, it is said, that 40 000 lives were lost.

In the early morning of the 24th of January 661 A.C., Abdul Rahman bin Muljim, a Khaariji fanatic lay in ambush in

the Masjid of Kufah and stabbed Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) when he entered the musjid. He passed away from

the wound. He was 63 years old.

PERSONAL LIFE

Sayyiduna Ali (radi allahu anhu) lived a simple life. He refused any luxury food and wore simple clothes thinking of the

poor. He should sleep on the ground and even sit on the floor. He repaired his own clothes and shoes and even did

manual labour. He spent nights in Salaah and should fast for three days in a row. Honesty, piety, justice and love of

truth were the main marks of his character.

 

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