ISLAM

Ghusl
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Ghusl: Obligatory Baths


There are seven obligatory baths:

  • Bath for Janabat
  • Bath for Hayz (for women only)
  • Bath for Nifas (for women only)
  • Bath for Istihaza (for women only)
  • Bath for touching a dead body
  • Bath for a dead body
  • Bath which becomes obligatory on account of a vow or an oath to perform it.

Rules Regarding Janabat

351. * A person enters the state of Janabat in two ways:
  • Sexual intercourse
  • Discharge of semen, while sleeping or when awake, little or more, with lust or otherwise, voluntarily or involuntarily.

352. When one cannot ascertain whether the fluid emitted from one's body is semen, urine or something else, it will be treated as semen if it is thrown out with lust and if the body is slackened. If all or some of these signs are not present the fluid will not be treated as semen. In the case of illness, the fluid may not come out with sudden swiftness and the body may not slacken; but if the emission takes place with lust, it will be treated as semen.

353. If a fluid emitted by a healthy person possesses one of the aforesaid three signs and he does not know whether or not it also possessed other signs, and if before the emission he was with wudhu he will content himself with that wudhu. And if he was not with wudhu, it would be sufficient for him to perform wudhu only, and Ghusl would not be necessary.

354. It is Mustahab that a person should urinate after the seminal discharge. If he did not urinate and an emission was seen after Ghusl, which could not been determined as semen or something else, it would be treated as semen.

355. If a person has sexual intercourse with a woman and the male organ enters either of the private parts of the woman up to the point of circumcision or more, both of them enter Janabat, regardless of whether they are adults or minors and whether ejaculation takes place or not.

356. If a person doubts whether or not his penis penetrated up to the point of circumcision, Ghusl will not become obligatory on him.

357. If (God forbid!) a person has sexual intercourse with an animal and ejaculates, Ghusl alone will be sufficient for him, and if he does not ejaculate and he was with wudhu at the time of committing the unnatural act even then Ghusl will be sufficient for him. However, if he was not with wudhu at that time, the obligatory precaution is that he should do Ghusl and also perform wudhu. And the same orders apply if one commits sodomy.

358. If movement of seminal fluid is felt but not emitted, or if a person doubts whether or not semen has been ejaculated, Ghusl will not be obligatory upon him.

359. A person who is unable to do Ghusl, but can perform tayammum is allowed to have sexual intercourse with his wife even after the time for daily prayers has set in.

360. If a person observes semen on his dress and knows that it is his own, and he has not done Ghusl on that account, he should do Ghusl, and repeat as Qadha all those prayers about which he is certain that he offered them after the discharge of semen. However, it is not necessary for him to repeat those prayers about which there is a probability that he might have offered them before the discharge of semen.

Forbidden Acts for those in Janabat

361. * The following five things are Haraam for junub:

  • To touch with any part of one's body the script of the holy Qur'an or the Name of Almighty Allah in whichever language it may be. And it is better that the names of the holy Prophet and Imams and Hazrat Fatima Zahra (peace be upon them) should also not be touched in that condition.
  • Entering Masjidul Haraam or Masjidun Nabi, even though it may be only passing from one gate and going out of another.
  • To stay or halt in all other Masjids, and similarly, on the basis of obligatory precaution, to stay in the shrines of the holy Imams. However, there is no harm if one crosses or traverses through a mosque, entering from one gate and exiting from another.
  • To enter a mosque with an intention of lifting away something or placing something in it.
  • To recite those verses of the holy Qur'an on the recitation of which performance of Sajdah becomes obligatory. These verses occur in four surahs of the holy Qur'an:
    • Surah Alif Lam Mim as-Sajdah, 32:15
    • Surah Ha Mim Sajdah, 41:38
    • Surah an-Najm, 53:62
    • Surah al 'Alaq, 96:19

Things which are Makrooh for Junub

362. * The following nine things are Makrooh for junub:

  • To eat
  • To drink
    But if the junub washes his or her face, hands and mouth, then eating or drinking in that state will not be Makrooh. And if he or she washes the hands only, then unworthiness of the acts is reduced.
  • To recite more than seven verses of the holy Qur'an other than those in which obligatory Sajdah occur.
  • To touch the cover, the margin or border of the holy Qur'an or the space between its lines, with any part of one's body.
  • To keep the holy Qur'an with oneself.
  • To sleep. But its would not be Makrooh to sleep if the person concerned performs wudhu or performs tayammum instead of Ghusl on account of non-availability of water.
  • To dye one's hair with henna etc
  • To apply oil on one's body.
  • To have sexual intercourse after Ihtelam (i.e. discharge of semen during sleep).

Ghusl for Janabat

363. * Ghusl for Janabat is obligatory for offering the daily prayers and other similar acts of worship. However, it is not obligatory for Namaz-e-Mayyit or for sajdatus sahv (prostrating on account of oversight) or sajdatush shukr' (prostration for thanksgiving) or for the obligatory Sajdah upon reciting the four particular verses of the holy Qur'an. (Rule no. 361)

364. * At the time of doing ghusl, it is not necessary to have in mind that one is performing an obligatory Ghusl. It is sufficient if one performs the Ghusl with the intention of Qurbat, i.e. complying with Allah's orders.

365. If a person who performs Ghusl with the niyyat of Wajib after having ascertained that the time of Namaz had set in, comes to know after performing the bath that it was performed before the time for prayers had set in, the bath would be correct and valid.

366. * There are two methods of performing Ghusls, both Wajib and Mustahab.

  • Tartibi (Sequential)
  • Irtimasi (By submerging the whole body).

Tartibi

367. * In this method, a person should first make a niyyat for Ghusl. Thereafter one should first wash one's head and neck, and thereafter the remaining parts of one's body. It is better that one washes the right part of the body first and then the left part.

And if a person, while standing under the water, jerks each of these parts on one's body with an intention of performing Tartibi Ghusl, it will not be sufficient and the precaution is that one should not content oneself with it.

And if a person washes the body before washing the head, either intentionally, or on account of forgetfulness or because of not knowing the rule, Ghusl is void.

368. * If a person washed the body before the head it will not be necessary to repeat the bath. What one has to do is to wash the body again and Ghusl will then be correct.

369. In order to ensure that both the parts (head, neck and remaining parts of the body) have been washed thoroughly one should, while washing a part, also include some portion of the other part with it.

370. After the Ghusl, if a person realises that certain parts of the body have been left out, not knowing which, it will not be necessary to wash the head again. One will wash only those parts of one's body which one feels had not been washed.

371. If one realises after Ghusl that one has not washed a certain part of the body it is sufficient to wash only that part if it is the left side. However, if that part is the right side then the recommended precaution is that after washing that part of the body one should wash the left side again. And if the unwashed part is that of head and neck one should, after washing that part, wash the body once again.

372. * If a person doubts before completing Ghusl whether one has washed a part on the left or right side it will be necessary to wash that part and if one doubts about having washed a part of the head and neck then, as an obligatory precaution, one would wash that part and then wash the right and the left side of the body again.

Irtimasi

373. * Ghusl by way of Irtimasi is either carried out instantly or gradually. If the Ghusl of Irtimasi is to be done at one instance, then water must reach all parts of the body at one time. However, it is not necessary that the whole body be submerged in water from the very beginning of Ghusl. If a part of the body is outside, and is later submerged with the niyyat of Ghusl, it will be deemed in order.

374. If one wishes to perform Irtimasi Ghusl gradually, then it is necessary that the whole body is out of water before Ghusl commences. Then one would submerge one's body gradually in water with the intention of Ghusl.

375. If after performing Ghusl Irtimasi it becomes known that water has not reached some part of the body one should repeat the Ghusl, whether the part up to which water has not reached is determined or not.

376. If one does not have sufficient time for Tartibi, one should perform Ghusl by way of Irtimasi.

377. * A person who has put on Ihram for Hajj and Umrah is not allowed to perform Ghusl by way of Irtimasi. However, if one performs it forgetfully the Ghusl will be valid.

Rules About Ghusl

378. It is not necessary that the entire body of a person should be Pak before Irtimasi and Tartibi Ghusl. So, if the body becomes Pak while diving in water or pouring water over one's body with the intention of the Ghusl, the Ghusl will be in order.

379. If a person who entered the state of Janabat due to an unlawful act takes a bath with warm water, the Ghusl will be valid even though one may perspire at that time. But the recommended precaution is that such a person should do Ghusl with cold water.

380. While doing Ghusl, if a part of the body, however small, remains unwashed the Ghusl is invalid. But, it is not obligatory to wash the inside of the ear or nose and other places which are reckoned to be the interior of the body.

381. * If a person doubts whether a particular part of the body is to be treated as external or internal, it should be washed.

382. If the hole pierced for an earring and other similar objects is so wide that it is reckoned to be external, then it should be washed; otherwise it is not necessary to wash it.

383. All things which prevent water from reaching the body should be removed. If a person does Ghusl before ensuring that such obstacles have been removed, the Ghusl will be void.

384. At the time of Ghusl, if one doubts whether there is something on one's body which would prevent water from reaching the body, one should investigate and satisfy oneself that the obstacle is not there.

385. While doing Ghusl, one should wash the short hair which are taken as a part of the body. Washing of the long hair is not obligatory. However, if one makes water reach the skin in such a way that those long hair do not become wet, the Ghusl is in order. However, if it is not possible to make water reach the skin without washing those hair one should wash them so that water may reach the body.

386. All the conditions for the validity of Wudhu (e.g. the water being pure and not having been usurped) also apply to the validity of Ghusl. However, for Ghusl it is not necessary that the body be washed downwards from the head. Moreover, it is not necessary in Tartibi Ghusl to wash the body immediately after washing the head and the neck. There is no harm, therefore, if there is a lapse of some time after washing one's head and neck before washing one's body. It is not necessary that one should wash one's head, neck and body in one instance. However, if a person is incontinent, unable to retain urine or faeces except for such time that he could be able to offer prayers after Ghusl then he should do Ghusl at once and offer his prayers immediately thereafter.

387. If a person uses a public bath with an intention of deferring payment to its owner, without a prior consent of the owner, the Ghusl will be void even if the owner is later made to agree to the arrangement.

388. If the owner of the public bath is agreeable to the Ghusl being done on credit basis, but the person doing Ghusl intends not to pay the charges to him or to pay him from the money acquired illegally, the Ghusl will be void.

389. If a person pays to the owner of the public bath from the funds whose Khums (1/5 of the yearly profit see rule no. 1760) has not been paid, then such a person commits a sinful act, but the Ghusl will be valid, though the liability for khums remains.

390. If a person hires a public bath for Ghusl, but before commencing Ghusl, he or she carries out an extra function of making the anal part Pak with the same water of the public bath, and if it becomes doubtful whether the owner would agree to the Ghusl being taken, then the owner's consent must be sought before the Ghusl. Otherwise, the Ghusl will be void.

391. * When a person is in doubt whether he or she has done Ghusl or not, such a person must do Ghusl. However, if doubt arises in the mind after Ghusl as to whether Ghusl was correct or not, then there is no need to do Ghusl again.

392. * If one urinates or passes wind (or does any act which would invalidate the Wudhu) while doing the Ghusl, one does not have to abandon the Ghusl and start all over again. In fact, one can continue with the same Ghusl till completion. However, in this situation, one will have to do Wudhu also, as per obligatory precaution.

393. * A person who has very little time at his disposal before Qadha, should perform Tayammum instead of Ghusl. Yet, if such a person does Ghusl under the impression that there is sufficient time for Ghusl and offering prayers, the Ghusl will be valid, provided that it was done with the intention of complying with the orders of Allah, even if the Ghusl was done with a view to offering the prayers.

394. * If a person after being Junub doubts whether or not he or she did Ghusl, the prayers already offered during that period would be deemed valid. But for the later prayers, such a person should do the Ghusl. If any such act which would invalidate Wudhu is committed, like urinating or passing the wind, after the prayers, then it will be necessary to do Wudhu, and as an obligatory precaution, to repeat the prayers he had offered, if time permits.

395. A person who has more than one Ghusl to do can do one Ghusl with the niyyat of the rest. In fact, one Ghusl with its niyyat is enough to represent all others.

396. If a verse of the holy Qur'an or Name of the Almighty Allah is written or tattooed on the body of a person then such a person while doing Wudhu or Ghusl, will be required to pour water on that part without touching the writing.

397. A person who does Ghusl of Janabat should not do Wudhu for the prayers. In fact one can offer prayers without performing Wudhu after all Wajib Ghusls (except the bath for medium istihaza) as well as after Mustahab Ghusls (see rule no. 651). In the case of Mustahab Ghusls, however, it is better to do Wudhu as a recommended precaution.

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