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Saiyadina Uthman Ibn Affan R.A.
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Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. 574 - 656) was the third caliph of the Ummah, and is regarded as one of the "Four Righteous Guided Caliphs". He reigned from 644 until 656.

Nayla Bint Farasa was Uthman's wife

Uthman was born into the wealthy Ummayad clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca, a few years after Muhammad. Unlike most of his kinsmen though, he was an early convert to Islam, and was well known for using his wealth to benefit charities. He was also married to two of Muhammad's daughters at separate times, earning him the nickname Dhun Nurayn or the "Posessor of Two Lights". During the life of Muhammad, he was also part of the first Muslim emigration to the city of Axum in Ethopia, and the later emigration from Mecca to Medina.

According to Islamic tradition, Uthman was one of the ten people for whom it was witnessed that they were destined for Paradise; one of the six with whom Muhammad was pleased when he died. Uthman was also one of the first men to memorize the Qur'an and he would be instrumental to its compilation after the death of Muhammad.

Uthman became caliph after the assassination of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab(Caliph Omar) in 644. Prior to his death, Omar appointed a group of six men to choose his successor from among themselves. Included in this group were Uthman and Ali. The committee chose Uthman.

He reigned for 12 years, and during his rule, all of Iran, most of North Africa, the Caucasus and Cyprus were added to the Islamic empire. In order to strengthen his control over the empire, Uthman appointed many of his kinsmen to governor positions, including Muawiya I. This, however, caused many problems, and many people were angered by Uthman's preferential treatment of his own kinsmen. This matter was not helped by some of the misrule by some of the governors he appointed, and was worsened by the involvement of some Umayyads in a plot to kill the son of Abu Bakr.

 

Hazrat Uthman Ghani (Radi Allah Unho)

ELECTION

Before he passed away, Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) appointed a six-man Committee to elect his successor

from among themselves. After long discussions and consultation, they elected Sayyiduna 'Uthman bin Affan (radi

Allahu anhu) as the third Caliph of Islam.

EARLY LIFE

Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) belonged to the Ummayah tribe of the Quraish. He was a very rich cloth

merchant. He was known as "Al Ghani" or "The Generous." His father's name was Affan and his mother was Urwa.

He accepted Islam at the invitation of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) and migrated to Abyssinia with his wife,

Sayyadah Ruqayyah (radi Allahu anha), who was also the daughter of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi

wasallam).

After she passed away, he married Sayyadah Umme Kulthum (radi Allahu anha), another daughter of Sayyiduna

Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Because of this, he earned the title "Zun Noorain" or "Possessor of Two

Lights." He took part in all the battles with Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) except the Battle of

Badr.

CONQUESTS

During the Khilaafat of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu), the rebellion in Azerbhaijaan and Armenia was silenced.

Sayyiduna Mu'awiyah (radi Allahu anhu), with the help of Sayyiduna Abi Sarah (radi Allahu anhu), captured Cyprus by

naval attack and brought it under Islamic rule. Vast areas of North Africa including Tripoli, Tunisia and Morocco were

also brought under the Islamic rule.

The Romans, although defeated several times by the Muslims in the past, made another attempt, during the Khilaafat

of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu), to recapture the lands they had already lost. Constantine, the Emperor of

Rome, made great preparations and attacked Alexandria with a naval fleet five to six thousand strong. But, the

Romans were defeated by the Muslim naval forces under the command of Sayyiduna Abi Sarah and Sayyiduna

Mu'awiyah (radi Allahu anhuma).

REBELLION

The Governors of the provinces, appointed by Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu), were removed and replaced by

members of the new Caliph's clan. The majority of the new governors were inspired by worldly means rather than by

piety and interests of their subjects. People started to demand the removal of these Governors, but the Caliph did not

respond to their appeals. Delegates mainly from Iraq and Egypt, submitted their demands to the Caliph. The situation,

however got out of control.

ASSASSINATION

In the turmoil, Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) himself was made Shaheed by rebels while he was reading the

Holy Quran inside his house. This happened on Friday, the 17th of Zil Hajj in 35 A.H.. He was 84 years old.

CHARACTER

Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allah anhu) was a very simple and very kind person. His simplicity and kindness did not alow

him to take strong action against the trouble makers and rioters. Above all, because of his simple-mindedness, his

administration was not as disciplined as it had been during the Khilaafat of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu).

Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) was a generous man. He used to spend a lot of money for Islam and to free

the slaves. He was a great and pious man who feared and loved Almighty Allah and Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu

alaihi wasallam) above everything else. Although he was very rich, his living was very simple. He did not indulge in

luxury. He was ever mindful of death. Major parts of the night were spent in Salaah. He also fasted every second or

third day.

THE HOLY QURAN

A major achievement of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) was the duplication of the Holy Quran from the records

kept by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu), who handed it to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu), who then

handed it to his daughter, Sayyadah Hafsa (radi Allahu anha), the wife of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi

wasallam).

Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) made copies of the Holy Quran from the original and sent it to capitals such as

Kufa, Damascus, Makkatul Mukarramah and Basrah, each accompanied by a Sahabi for the guidance of the readers.