Umar ibn al-Khattab, al-Farooq (in Arabic, عمر بن الخطاب)
(c. 581 - November, 644), sometimes referred to as Umar Farooq or just as Omar or Umar, was the
second caliph of Islam (634-644). He is regarded by Sunnis as one of the first four Khulfa-e-Rashidun
(in Persian and Urdu, خلفأے راشدین) (or "Rightly Guided
Umar was born in Mecca around 581 to the Adi clan of the Quraish Tribe. He is said to have belonged
to a middle class family. He was literate, which was uncommon in those times, and he was also well known for his physical
strength, being a champion wrestler.
When Muhammad first declared his message of Islam, Umar resolved to defend the traditional religion
of the Quraish (regarded by Muslims as idolatry). With his sword in his hand, he set out intending to kill Muhammad. While
on his way he was told that his sister had became a Muslim. He went to her and found her reciting verses of the Qur'an. He
became infuriated and gave her a slap which caused a bloody wound. His sister did not lose spirit and eventualy Umars heart
softened and he converted to Islam in the same moment.
Umar was part of the first emigration (Hijra) to Yathrib (renamed Medinat al Nabi, or simply Medina shortly
thereafter) in 622 C.E. (also known as year 1 A.H., Anno Hegirae, in the Islamic Calender, which was instituted by Umar
in 638). He was one of the companions, or close associates of Muhammad.
Sunnis claim that The Prophet once said that "Satan amongst men amd Jinn flee from Umar". Once a hypocrite
amongst the Muslims had a fight with a Jew. It is said that the Jew knew that he was right and that Muhammad would favour
him. So he took the case to the prophet. As the Jew had thought, the prophet decided that the Jew was right. So the Jew was
favored. The Muslim hypocrite did not like it. He took the case to Umar. When the jew narrated how the prophet had made the
judgement, Umar was so enraged with the Muslim hypocrite he told him to wait and went inside and came back with his sword
and chopped his head off saying if you did not accept Muhammad's (Peace Be Upon Him)decision then you are not a Muslim you
are a hypocrite. From that day Umar Sunnis claim that Umar was given the title "Al Faruq". It means one who can distinguish
between the good and bad.
When war broke out between Mecca and Medina; Umar accompanied in several of the battles.
Hazrat Umar Farooq (Radi Allah Unho)
Before he passed away, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) consulted the senior Sahaba and elected Sayyiduna
Umar (radi Allahu anhu) as the second Caliph
of the Muslims.
He was the son of Khattab and is famous in Islamic history as "Al Farooq" or "One who Distinguishes between
Right and Wrong." His acceptance of Islam is also very famous.
AS A CALIPH
Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) was a very
brave and straight-forward person. He was tough and uncompromising
in Islamic principles. He was a great and talented ruler. During his Khilaafat, vast areas of the Roman and
empires and the whole of Egypt were brought under Islamic rule. He was also a gifted orator. He was very concerned
for the welfare of the Muslims. He left a honourable legacy for Muslims after him. The Holy Quran was given
by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) for
APPOINTS NEW COMMANDER
Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anu) was a strong
disciplinarian. He noticed the tremendous popularity of Sayyiduna
Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu). He felt
that people will lose trust in Almighty Allah and put all their trust in
Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu).
He feared that the people may think too highly of him, thereby possibly
increasing the self-esteem of Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu)
which would also breed arrogance, so he
removed Sayyiduna Khalid (radi Allahu anhu) and
appointed Sayyiduna Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah (radi Allahu anhu) as
the Commander in Chief of the Muslim army.
Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) happily
accepted the orders of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) and
then served as an ordinary soldier. This is an example of the Islamic teachings of obedience to leadership!
DEFEAT OF THE PERSIANS
Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) had
left Sayyiduna Muthanna (radi Allahu anhu) in command of the
Muslim forces on the Iraqi front when he rushed to Yarmuk. Sayyiduna Muthanna (radi
Allahu anhu) was finding it
difficult to counter the enemy and went personally to Madinatul Munawwarah to ask Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu
anhu) for re-inforcements. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi
Allahu anhu) had by that time passed away.
Sayyiduna Muthanna (radi Allahu anhu's) absence
from the Iraqi front made things worse there. The Iranians
regrouped under the command of Rustam and recaptured the lands taken by the Muslims. Rustam sent 2 columns of
his army, one to Hirah and the other to Kaskar.
Islamic Article: Hazrat Umar Farooq (Radi Allah Unho)
NooreMadinah Network - http://www.NooreMadinah.net
Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) sent Sayyiduna
Abu Ubaidah (radi Allahu anhu), as Commander, to deal with
situation. Both the Persian columns were defeated. Rustam sent an even larger army and defeated the Muslims.
Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) raised another
army and defeated the Persians. But the Persian court sent yet
another larger army, and forced Sayyiduna Muthanna (radi Allahu anhu) to withdraw. The report of the new situation
was sent to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) and
reinforcements under the command of Sayyiduna Saad bin Abi
Waqqas (radi Allahu anhu) were sent.
The Persian and Muslim army met at Qadisiyah. After a long battle on several fronts, the outnumbered Muslim
defeated the 120 000 Persian soldiers and recaptured Hirah and their areas in the year 14 A.H. (636 C.E).
DEFEAT OF THE ROMANS
Muslims laid siege to Damascus during Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu's)
rule as Caliph. It continued, after he
passed away, and lasted 70 days during the rule of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu
anhu). After the long siege,
Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) took
the Romans by surprise and entered the city. The Governor
surrendered and a peace treaty was signed.
CONQUEST OF JERUSALEM
Meanwhile, Sayyiduna Amr ibn As (radi Allahu anhu) was laying siege to Jerusalem. Sayyiduna Khalid, Sayyiduna Abu
Ubaidah and other Sahaba (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in) also joined him. The Christians had little hope and decided
to give in. They also suggested that the keys of Jerusalem be given to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) himself
personally. Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) went
to Jerusalem. An agreement was signed that guaranteed the
safety of the city and the safety of the Christians.
A Persian non-Muslim, named Firoz and nicknamed "Abu Lulu," complained to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu)
about his master, Sayyiduna Mughirah bin Shuba (radi Allahu anhu), who imposed tax on him. Sayyiduna Umar (radi
Allahu anhu) told Firoz that the tax was reasonable. This made Firoz angry.
The next day, during the Fajr Salaah, he stabbed Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu
anhu) 6 times in the back, severely
wounding the Caliph. Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) passed away 3 days later in 23 A.H. He was 63 years old. He
ruled the Islamic State for 10 years, 6 months and 4 days.
In a short space of 10 years, Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) had been well-known for his outstanding
achievements and reforms in Islam. Some of these reforms were:-
1. He established the "Baitul Maal" (People's
treasury for the state and public).
2. Judicial courts of Justice were set in the country. Judges and Magistrates handled all cases.
3. Establishment of an army headquarters for the defence of the country.
4. Construction of roads and canals.
5. Schools were established. Salaries for Imams, Mu'azzins and Ustaads were organized.
6. Masjids were improved and built in Makkatul Mukarramah and Madinatul Munawwarah. This included facilities
for the Haajis.
7. Police Stations and prisons were built.
8. Establishment of the first Islamic Lunar calendar beginning from the Hijrah.
9. Proper weights and measures introduced.
10. Population census established.
11. Built orphanages and welfare homes.
12. Established proper punishment system and banned slavery.
Simplicity and devotion were the main characters of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu
anhu). He used to wear clothes that
had many patches and yet received Governors, convoys and diplomats. He took just enough allowance from the State
to have a simple meal and wear simple clothes. At times he was very poor. He used to visit the old people and
and even do their house work. He used to visit the houses of the soldiers and inquire about their families.
awake at night in Salaah and often kept Fast. He always supported and upheld the cause of Islam, with his wisdom,
energy, dynamism, bravery and little wealth.