was born in Makka, Arabia, on Monday, 12 Rabi' Al-Awal (2 August
A.D. 570). His mother, Aminah, was the daughter of Wahb Ibn Abdu Manaf of the Zahrah family. His father, 'Abdullah, was the
son of Abdul Muttalib. His genealogy has been traced to the noble house of Ishmael, the son of Prophet Abraham in about the
fortieth descend. Mohammed's father died before his birth.
Before he was six years old
his mother died, and the doubly orphaned Mohammed was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who took
the most tender care of him. But the old chief died two years afterwards. On his deathbed he confided to his son Abu Talib
the charge of the little orphan. Journey to Busra - Christian Monk merits Mohammed :
Mohammed was twelve years old, he accompanied his uncle Abu Talib on a mercantile
journey to Syria, and they proceeded as far as Busra. The journey lasted for some months. It was at Busra that the Christian
monk Bahira met Mohammed . He is related to have said to Abu Talib: 'Return with this boy and
guard him against the hatred of the Jews, for a great career awaits your nephew."
Mohammed's honest and honorable character:
After this journey, the youth of Mohammed seems to have been passed uneventfully, but all authorities agree
in ascribing to him such correctness of manners and purity of morals as were rare among the people of Makka. The fair character
and the honorable bearing of the unobtrusive youth won the approbation of the citizens of Makka, and by common consent he
received the title of "Al-Ameen," The Faithful.
In his early years, Mohammed was not free from the cares of life. He had to watch the flocks of
his uncle, who, like the rest of the Bani Hashim, had lost the greater part of his wealth.
Solitary lifestyle of
From youth to manhood he led an almost solitary
life. The lawlessness rife among the Makkans, the sudden outbursts of causeless and bloody quarrels among the tribes frequenting
the Fair of Okadh (The Arabian Olympia), and the immorality and skepticism of the Quraish, naturally caused feelings of pity
and sorrow in the heart of the sensitive youth. Such scenes of social misery and religious degradation were characteristic
of a depraved age. Mohammed's marriage to Khadijah:
When Mohammed was twenty five years old, he traveled once more to Syria as a factor
of a noble and rich Quraishi widow named Khadijah; and, having proved himself faithful in the commercial interests of that
lady, he was soon rewarded with her hand in marriage. This marriage proved fortunate and singularly happy. Khadijah was much
the senior of her husband, but in spite of the disparity of age between them, the most tender devotion on both sides existed.
This marriage gave him the loving heart of a woman who was ever ready to console him in his despair and to keep alive within
him the feeble, flickering flame of hope when no man believed in him and the world appeared gloomy in his eyes.
lawless times for the Makkans:
Until he reached thirty years of age, Mohammed was almost a stranger to the outside world. Since the death of his
grandfather, authority in Makka was divided among the ten senators who constituted the governing body of the Arabian Commonwealth.
There was no such accord among them as to ensure the safety of individual rights and property. Though family relations afforded
some degree of protection to citizens, yet strangers were frequently exposed to persecution and oppression. In many cases
they were robbed, not only of their goods, but even of their wives and daughters. At the instigation of the faithful Mohammed
, an old league called the Federation of Fudul, i.e., favours was
revived with the object of repressing lawlessness and defending every weak individual - whether Makkan or stranger, free or
slave - against any wrong or oppression to which he might be the victim within the territories of Makka.
Mohammed reached thirty-five years, he settled by his judgment a grave dispute,
which threatened to plunge the whole of Arabia into a fresh series of her oft-recurring wars. In rebuilding the Sacred House
of the Ka'ba in A.D. 605, the question arose as to who should have the honor of raising the black stone, the most holy relic
of that House, into its proper place. Each tribe claimed that honor. The senior citizen advised the disputants to accept for
their arbitrator the first man to enter from a certain gate. The proposal was agreed upon, and the first man who entered the
gate was Mohammed "Al-Ameen." His advice satisfied all the contending parties. He ordered
the stone to be placed on a piece of cloth and each tribe to share the honor of lifting it up by taking hold of a part of
the cloth. The stone was thus deposited in its place, and the rebuilding of the House was completed without further interruption. Mohammed
thwarts intentions of the Romans to control Makka:
It is related that, about this time, a certain Usman, Ibn Huwairith, supported
by Byzantine gold, made an attempt to convert the territory of Hijaz into a Roman dependency, but the attempt failed, chiefly
through the instrumentality of Mohammed .
Kindness and generosity shown to the people:
are nearly all the public acts related by historians in which Mohammed took part in the first fifteen years of his marriage to Khadijah.
As for his private life he is described to have been ever helpful to the needy and the helpless. His uncle Abu Talib had fallen
into distress through his endeavors to maintain the old position of his family. Mohammed , being rather rich at this time by his alliance with Khadijah, tried
to discharge part of the debt of gratitude and obligation which he owed to his uncle by undertaking the bringing up and education
of his son 'Ali. A year later he adopted 'Akil, another of his uncle's sons.
Khadijah bore Mohammed three sons and four daughters. All the males died in childhood, but
in loving his daughters and 'Ali he found much consolation.
About this time, Mohammed set a good example of kindness, which created a salutary effect upon
his people. His wife Khadijah had made him a present of young slave named Zaid Ibn Haritha, who had been brought as a captive
to Makka and sold to Khadijah. When Haritha heard that Mohammed possessed Zaid, he came to Makka and offered a large sum for his
ransom. Whereupon Muhammd said: "Let Zaid come here, and if he chooses to go with you, take him without ransom; but if it
be his choice to stay with me, why should I not keep him?' Zaid, being brought into Mohammed's presence, declared that he would stay with his master, who treated
him as if he was his only son. Mohammed no sooner heard this than he took Zaid by the hand and led him to
the black stone of Ka'ba, where he publicly adopted him as his son, to which the father acquiesced and returned home well
satisfied. Henceforward Zaid was called the son of Mohammed .
Mohammed was now approaching his fortieth year, and his mind was ever-engaged
in profound contemplation and reflection. Before him lay his country, bleeding and torn by fratricidal wars and intolerable
dissensions; his people, sunk in barbarism, addicted to the observation of rites and superstitions, were, with all their desert
virtues, lawless and cruel. His two visits to Syria had opened to him a scene of unutterable moral and social desolation,
rival creeds and sects tearing each other to pieces, carrying their hatred to the valleys and deserts of Hijaz, and rending
the townships of Arabia with their quarrels and bitterness.
Allah's Divine Inspiration touches Mohammed :
years after his marriage, Mohammed had been accustomed to secluding himself in a cave in Mount Hira,
a few miles from Makka. To this cave he used to go for prayer and meditation, sometimes alone and sometime with his family.
There, he often spent the whole nights in deep thought and profound communion with the Unseen yet All-Knowing Allah of the Universe. It was during one of those retirements and
in the still hours of the night, when no human sympathy was near, that an angel came to him to tell him that he was the Messenger
of Allah sent to reclaim a fallen people to the knowledge and service
of their Lord. Renowned compilers of authentic traditions of Islam agree on the following account of the first revelations
received by the Prophet .
Mohammed would seclude himself in the cave of Mount Hira and worship for three
days and nights. He would, whenever he wished, return to his family at Makka and then go back again, taking with him the necessities
of life. Thus he continued to return to Khadijah from time to time until one day the revelation came down to him and the Angel
Gabriel (Jibreel) appeared to him and said:
But as Mohammed was illiterate, having never recieved any formal education in reading
or writing, he said to the Angel:
"I am not a reader"
angel took hold of him and squeezed him as much as he could bear and then said again:
Mohammed replied "I am not a reader"
The angel again siezed him and said:
Surah 96.Al-Alaq (The Clot), verse 3, 4 and
5 Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,- He Who taught (the use of) the pen,-Taught man that which he knew
Then the Prophet
repeated the words with a trembling heart. He returned to Khadijah
from Mount Hira and said: "Wrap me up! Wrap me up!" She wrapped him in a garment until his fear was dispelled. He told Khadijah
what had occurred and that he was becoming either a soothsayer or one smitten with madness. She replied: "Allah forbid! He will surely not let such a thing happen, for you
speak the truth, you are faithful in trust, you bear the afflictions of the people, you spend in good works what you gain
in trade, you are hospitable and you assist your fellow men. Have you seen anything terrible?" Mohammed replied: "Yes," and told her what he had seen. Whereupon, Khadijah
said: "Rejoice, O dear husband and be cheerful. He is Whose hands stands Khadijah's life bears witness to the truth of this
fact, that you will be the Prophet to this people."
Khadijah consults cousin knowledgeable
of Scriptures; confirmation of Prophet :
this experience Khadijah went to her cousin Waraqa Ibn Naufal, who was old and blind and who knew the Scriptures of the Jews
and Christians, and is stated to have translated them into Arabic. When she told him of what she had heard, he cried out:
"Holy! Holy! Verily, this is the Namus (The Holy Spirit) who came to Moses. He will be the prophet of his people. Tell him this and bid him to be brave at heart." When
the two men met subsequently in the street, the blind old student of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures spoke of his faith
and trust: "I swear by Him in Who hand Waraqa's life is, Allah has chosen you to be the prophet of this people. They will call you a liar, they will persecute you,
they will banish you, and they will fight against you. Oh, that I could live to those days. I would fight for these." And
he kissed him on the forehead.
Mohammed's Visions and struggle to fight depression:
The first vision was followed by a considerable period, during which Mohammed
suffered much mental depression. Only Almighty Allah knows what Mohammed must have been thinking and feeling at that time. He may have been
worried about his visions, uncertain as to how the majority of the Makkans would treat Allah's blessing, since their own interests were at stake. The Makkans,
at that time, relied heavily on trade that revolved around the polytheistic and pagan rituals of false idols and statues and
other things that they worshipped. One can't contemplate his future and responsibilities to the people of the world, as well
as the challenges that Allah Almighty had chosen him for.
Prophet rises to start his mission for Allah :
The angel spoke to the grieved heart of hope and trust and of the bright future when he would see the people
of the earth crowding into the one true faith. His destiny was unfolded to him, when, wrapped in profound meditation, melancholy
and sad, he felt himself called by a voice from heaven to arise and preach.
Surah 74.Al-Muddaththir (The Cloaked One), verse 1,2 and 3
O thou wrapped up (in the mantle)! Arise and deliver thy warning! And thy Lord do thou magnify!
He arose and engaged himself in the work to which he was called. Khadijah
was the first to accept his mission. She was to believe in the revelations, to abandon the idolatry of her people and to join
him in purity of heart and in offering up prayers to Allah the Almighty.
beginning of his mission, Mohammed - hereinafter called the Prophet - opened his soul only to those
who were attached to him and tried to free them from the gross practices of their forefathers. After Khadijah, his cousin'
Ali was the next companion. The Prophet used often to go into the desert around Makka with his wife and young cousin that
they might together offer their heart felt thanks to the Lord of all nations for His manifold blessings. Once they were surprised
by Abu Talib, the father of 'Ali. He said to the Prophet: "O son of my brother, what is this religion you are following?"
"It is the religion of Allah of His Angels, of His Messengers and of our ancestor Abraham,"
answered the Prophet. "Allah has sent me to His servants, to direct them towards the
truth, and you, O my uncle, are the most worthy of all. It is meet that I should thus call upon you and it is meet that you
should accept the truth and help in spreading it."
Abu Talib replied: "Son of my brother, I cannot abjure the religion
of my fathers; but by the Supreme Lord, while I am alive, none shall dare to injure you." Then turning towards 'Ali, the venerable
chief asked what religion was his. Ali answered: "O father, I believe in Allah and His Prophet and go with him." Abu Talib replied: "Well
my son, he will not call you to anything except what is good, therefore you are free to go with him."
After 'Ali, Mohammed's
adopted son Zaid became a convert to the new faith. He was followed
by Abu Bakr, a leading member of the Quraish tribe and an honest, wealthy merchant who enjoyed great consideration among his
compatriots. He was but two years younger than the Prophet. His adoption of the new faith was of great moral effect. Soon
after, five notables presented themselves before the Prophet and accepted Islam. Several converts also came from lower classes
of the Arabs to adopt the new religion.
Proliferation of Islamic knowledge by our Prophet:
weary long years, the Prophet labored very quietly to deliver his people from the worship of idols. Polytheism was deeply
rooted among the people. It offered attractions, which the new faith in its purity did not possess. The Quraish had personal
material interests in the old worship, and their prestige was dependent upon its maintenance. The Prophet had to contend with
the idolatrous worship of its followers and to oppose the ruling oligarchy, which governed its destinies.
years of constant but quiet struggle, only thirty followers were secured. An important change now occurred in the relations
of the Prophet with the citizens of Makka. His compatriots had begun to doubt his sanity, thinking him crazy or possessed
by an evil spirit. Hitherto he preached quietly and unobtrusively. He now decided to appeal publicly to the Makkans, requesting
them to abandon their idolatry. For this he arranged a gathering on a neighboring hill and there spoke to them of their folly
in the sight of Allah in worshipping pieces of stone which they called their gods.
He invited them to abandon their old impious worship and adopt the faith of love, truth and purity. He warned them of the
fate that had overtaken past races who had not heeded the preaching of former prophets. But the gathering departed without
listening to the warning given them by the Prophet.
Having thus failed to induce his fellow citizens to listen to him,
he turned his attention to the strangers arriving in the city on commerce or pilgrimage. But the Quraish made attempts to
frustrate his efforts. They hastened themselves to meet the strangers first on different routes, to warn them against holding
any communication with the Prophet, whom they represented as a dangerous magician. When the pilgrims or traders returned to
their homes, they carried with them the news of the advent of the bold preacher who was inviting the Arabs loudly - at the
risk of his own life - to abandon the worship of their dear idols.
Persecution perpetrated by the Makkan Tribe of
Now the Prophet and his followers became subject to some persecution and indignity. The hostile Quraish
prevented the Prophet from offering his prayers at the Sacred House of the Ka'ba; they pursued him wherever he went; they
covered him and his disciples with dirt and filth when engaged in their devotions; they scattered thorns in the places which
he frequented for devotion and meditation. Amidst all these trials the Prophet did not waiver. He was full of confidence in
his mission, even when on several occasions he was put in imminent danger of losing his life.
At this time Hamza, the
youngest son of Abdul Muttalib, adopted Islam. Hamza was a man of distinguished bravery, an intrepid warrior, generous and
true, whose heroism earned for him the title of the "Lion of Allah ." He became a devoted adherent of Islam and everlost his life
in the cause.
The Prophet continued preaching to the Arabs in a most gentle and reasonable manner. He called thepeople,
so accustomed to iniquity and wrong doings, to abandon their abominations. In burning words which excited the hearts of his
hearers, he warned them of the punishment which Allah had inflicted upon the ancient tribes of 'Ad and Thamud who
had obstinately disobeyed the teachings of Allah's messengers to them. He adjured them by the wonderful sights
of nature, by the noon day brightness, by the night when it spreads its veil, by the day when it appears in glory to listen
to his warning before a similar destruction befell them. He spoke to them of the Day of Reckoning, when their deeds in this
world will be weighed before the Eternal Judge, when the children who had been buried alive will be asked for what crime
they were put to death.
But they wonder that there has come to them a Warner from among themselves.
So the Unbelievers say: "This is a wonderful thing! "What! When we die and become dust, (shall we live again?) That is a (sort
of) return far (from our understanding)." We already know how much of them the earth takes away: With Us is a record guarding
(the full account). But they deny the Truth when it comes to them: so they are in a confused state. Do they not look at the
sky above them?- How We have made it and adorned it, and there are no flaws in it? And the earth- We have spread it out, and
set thereon mountains standing firm, and produced therein every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs)- To be observed and commemorated
by every devotee turning (to Allah). And We send down from the sky rain charted with blessing, and We produce therewith gardens
and Grain for harvests; And tall (and stately) palm-trees, with shoots of fruit-stalks, piled one over another;- As sustenance
for (Allah's) Servants;- and We give (new) life therewith to land that is dead: Thus will be the Resurrection. Before them
was denied (the Hereafter) by the People of Noah, the Companions of the Rass, the Thamud, The 'Ad, Pharaoh, the brethren of
Lut, The Companions of the Wood, and the People of Tubba'; each one (of them) rejected the messengers, and My warning
was duly fulfilled (in them).
Praise be Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and made the darkness and the light.
Yet those who reject Faith hold (others) as equal, with their Guardian-Lord. He it is created you from clay, and then decreed
a stated term (for you). And there is in His presence another determined term; yet ye doubt within yourselves! And He is Allah
in the heavens and on earth. He knoweth what ye hide, and what ye reveal, and He knoweth the (recompense) which ye earn (by
your deeds). But never did a single one of the signs of their Lord reach them, but they turned away therefrom. And now they
reject the truth when it reaches them: but soon shall they learn the reality of what they used to mock at. See they not how
many of those before them We did destroy?- generations We had established on the earth, in strength such as We have not given
to you - for whom We poured out rain from the skies in abundance, and gave (fertile) streams flowing beneath their (feet):
yet for their sins We destroyed them, and raised in their wake fresh generations (to succeed them).
As the number of believers increased and the cause of the Prophet was strengthened
by the conversions of many powerful citizens, the Prophet's preaching alarmed the Quraish. Their power and prestige were at
stake. They were the custodians of the idols, which the Prophet had threatened to destroy; they were the ministers of the
worship, which he denounced; in fact their existence and living wholly depended upon the maintenance of the old institutions.
The Prophet taught that in the sight of his Lord all human beings were equal, the only distinction recognized among them being
the weight of their piety.
Allah the Exalted said:
Surah 49.Al-Hujraat (The Private Apartments), verse 13
mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know
each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the
most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).
The Quraish would
have none of this levelling of distinctions, as it reflected upon their long inherited privileges. Accordingly, they organized
a system of persecution in order to suppress the movement before it became firmly established. They decided that each family
should take upon itself the task of stamping out the new faith on the spot. Each household tortured its own members or adherents
or slaves who were supposed to have connected themselves with the new religion. With the exception of the Prophet, who was
protected by Abu Talib and his kinsmen, and Abu Bakr, and a few others who were either distinguished by their rank or possessed
some influence among the Quraish, all other converts were subjected to different sorts of torture. Some of them were thrown
into prison, starved, and then flogged. The hill of Ramada and the place called Bata thus became scenes of cruel torture.
fear spread of Islam - Try in vain to blackmail Prophet:
One day the Quraish tried to induce the Prophet to discontinue
his teachings of the new religion, which had sown discord among their people. 'Utba Ibn Rabi'a, was delegated to see the Prophet
and speak to him. 'Utba said: "O son of my brother, you are distinguished by your qualities; yet you have sown discord among
our people and cast dissension in our families; you denounced our gods and goddesses and you charge our ancestors with impiety.
Now we are come to make a proposition to you, and I ask you to think well before you reject it." "I am listening to you, O
father of Walid," said the Prophet. "O son of my brother, if by this affair you intend to acquire riches, honors, and dignity,
we are willing to collect for you a fortune larger than is possessed by any one of us; we shall make you our chief and will
do nothing without you. If you desire dominion, we shall make you our king; and if the demon which possesses you cannot be
subdued, we will bring you doctors and give them riches until they cure you." When 'Utba had finished his discourse, the Prophet
said: "Now listen to me, O father of Walid." "I listen." He replied. The Prophet, recited to him the first thirteen verses
of Surah Fussilat, as follows:
A Revelation from (Allah), Most Gracious, Most Merciful;- A Book, whereof the verses are explained in detail;- a Qur'an in
Arabic, for people who understand;- Giving good news and admonition: yet most of them turn away, and so they hear not. They
say: "Our hearts are under veils, (concealed) from that to which thou dost invite us, and in our ears in a deafness, and between
us and thee is a screen: so do thou (what thou wilt); for us, we shall do (what we will!)" Say thou: "I am but a man
like you: It is revealed to me by Inspiration, that your Allah is one Allah: so stand true to Him, and ask for His Forgiveness."
And woe to those who join gods with Allah,- Those who practise not regular Charity, and who even deny the Hereafter. For those
who believe and work deeds of righteousness is a reward that will never fail. Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the
earth in two Days? And do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds. He set on the (earth), mountains standing
firm, high above it, and bestowed blessings on the earth, and measure therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion,
in four Days, in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (Sustenance). Moreover He comprehended in His design the sky,
and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: "Come ye together, willingly or unwillingly." They said: "We do
come (together), in willing obedience." So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each heaven
its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him)
the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge. But if they turn away, say thou: "I have warned you of a stunning Punishment (as
of thunder and lightning) like that which (overtook) the 'Ad and the Thamud!"
When the Prophet had finished his
recitation, he said to 'Utba: "This is my reply to your proposition; now take what course you find best."
increase Persecution - First Hijra of 615 C.E. to Abyssinia:
Persecution by the Quraish grew fiercer every day
and the sufferings of the Prophet's disciples became unbearable. He had heard of the righteousness, tolerance, and hospitality
of the neighboring Christian king of Abyssinia. He recommended such of his companions who were without protection to seek
refuge in the kingdom of that pious king, Al-Najashi (Negus). Some fifteen of the unprotected adherents of Islam promptly
availed themselves of the advice and sailed to Abyssinia. Here they met with a very kind reception from the Negus. This is
called the first hijrah (migration) in the history of Islam and occurred in the fifth year of the Prophet Mohammed's mission, A.D. 615. These emigrants were soon followed by many of
their fellow sufferers, until the number reached eighty-three men and eighteen women. The hostile Quraish,
furious at the escape of their victims, sent deputes to the king of Abyssinia to request him to deliver up the refugees, that
they might be put to death for adjuring their old religion and embracing a new one. The king summoned the poor fugitives and
inquired of them what was the religion, which they had adopted in preference to their old faith. Ja'far, son of Abu Talib
and brother of 'Ali, acted as spokesman for the exiles. He spoke thus: "O king, we were plunged in the depth of ignorance
and barbarism, we adored idols, we lived in unchastity, and we ate dead bodies, and we spoke abomination, we disregarded every
feeling of humanity and sense of duty towards our neighbors, and we knew no law but that of the strong, when Allah raised among us a man, of whose birth, truthfulness, honesty,
and purity we were aware. He called us to profess the Unity of Allah and taught us to associate nothing with Him; he forbade us
the worship of idols and enjoined us to speak the truth, to be faithful to our trusts, to be merciful, and to regard the rights
of neighbors; he forbade us to speak evil of the worship of Allah and not to return to the worship of idols of woos and stone
and to abstain from evil, to offer prayers, to give alms, to observe the fast. We have believed in him, we have accepted his
teachings and his injunctions to worship Allah alone and to associate nothing with Him. Hence our people
have persecuted us, trying to make us forego the worship of Allah and return to the worship of idols of wood and stone and other
abominations. They have tortured us and injured us until, finding no safety among them, we have come to your kingdom trusting
you will give us protection against their persecution."
Al-Najashi (Negus), King of Abyssinia protects Muslims:
hearing the above speech, the hospitable king ordered the deputies to return to their people in safety and not to interfere
with their fugitives. Thus the emigrants passed the period of exile in peace and comfort.
While the followers of the
Prophet sought safety in foreign lands against the persecution of their people, he continued his warnings to the Quraish more
strenuously than ever. Again they came to him with offers of riches and honor, which he firmly and utterly refused. But they
mocked at him and urged him for miracles to prove his mission. He used to answer: "Allah has not sent me to work wonders; He has sent me to preach
Thus disclaiming all power of wonder working, the Prophet ever rested the truth of his divine mission upon
his wise teachings. He addressed himself to the inner consciousness of man, to his common sense and to his own better judgement:
Surah 41.Fussilat (Explained In Detail), verse 6 Say thou: "I am but a man like you: It is revealed to
me by Inspiration, that your Allah is one Allah: so stand true to Him, and ask for His Forgiveness." And woe to those who
join gods with Allah,-
Despite all the exhortation
of the Prophet, the Quraish persisted in asking him for a sign. They insisted that unless some sign be sent down to him from
his Lord, they would not believe. The disbeliveers used to ask: "Why has Mohammed not been sent with miracles like previous prophets?" The Prophet
replied: "Because miracles had proved inadequate to convince. Noah was sent with signs, and with what effect? Where was the
lost tribe of Thamud? They had refused to receive the preaching of the Prophet Salih, unless he showed them a sign and caused
the rock to bring forth a living camel. He did what they asked. In scorn they cut the camel's feet and then daring the prophet
to fulfill his threats of judgment, were found dead in their beds the next morning, stricken by the angel of the Lord."
Holy Qur'an is a Miracle:
There are some seventeen places in the Quran, in which the Prophet Mohammed is challenged to work a sign, and he answered them all to the same
or similar effect: Allah has the power of working miracles, and has not been believed;
there were greater miracles in nature than any which could be wrought outside of it; and the Quran itself was a great, everlasting
miracle. The Quran, the Prophet used to assert to the disbeliveers, is a book of blessings which is a warning for the whole
world; it is a complete guidance and explains everything necessary; it is a reminder of what is imprinted on human nature
and is free from every discrepancy and from error and falsehood. It is a book of true guidance and a light to all.
to the sacred idols, so much honored and esteemed by the pagan Arabs, the Prophet openly recited:
Surah 53.An-Najm (The Star), verse 23
These are nothing but names which ye have devised,- ye
and your fathers,- for which Allah has sent down no authority (whatever). They follow nothing but conjecture and what their
own souls desire!- Even though there has already come to them Guidance from their Lord!
When the Prophet
thus spoke reproachfully of the sacred gods of the Quraish, the latter redoubled their persecution. But the Prophet, nevertheless,
continued his preaching undaunted but the hostility of his enemies or by their bitter persecution of him. And despite all
opposition and increased persecution, the new faith gained ground. The national fair at Okadh near Makka attracted many desert
Bedouins and trading citizen of distant towns. These listened to the teachings of the Prophet, to his admonitions, and to
his denunciations of their sacred idols and of their superstitions. They carried back all that they had heard to their distant
homes, and thus the advent of the Prophet was made know to almost all parts of the peninsula.
Makkans plea to Abu
Talib to stop The Prophet:
The Makkans, however, were evermore furious at the Prophet's increasing preaching against
their religion. They asked his uncle Abu Talib to stop him, but he could not do anything. At length, as the Prophet persisted
in his ardent denunciations against their ungodliness and impiety, they turned him out from the Ka'ba where he used to sit
and preach, and subsequently went in a body to Abu Talib. They urged the venerable chief to prevent his nephew from abusing
their gods any longer or uttering any ill words against their ancestors. They warned Abu Talib that if he would not do that,
he would be excluded from the communion of his people and driven to side with Mohammed ; the matter would then be settled by fight until one of the two parties
Abu Talib neither wished to separate himself from his people, nor forsake his nephew for the idolaters
to revenge themselves upon. He spoke to the Prophet very softly and begged him to abandon his affair. To this suggestion the
Prophet firmly replied: "O my uncle, if they placed the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to cause me to renounce
my task, verily I would not desist therefrom until Allah made manifest His cause or I perished in the attempt." The
Prophet, overcome by the thought that his uncle and protector was willing to desert him, turned to depart. But Abu Talib called
him loudly to come back, and he came. "Say whatever you please; for by the Lord I shall not desert you ever."
Talib protects his Nephew, The Prophet:
The Quraish again attempted in vain to cause Abu Talib to abandon his nephew.
The venerable chief declared his intention to protect his nephew against any menace or violence. He appealed to the sense
of honor of the two families of the Bani Hashim and the Bani Muttalib, both families being kinsmen of the Prophet, to protect
their member from falling a victim to the hatred of rival parties. All the members of the two families nobly responded to
the appeal of Abu Talib except Abu Lahab, one of the Prophet's uncles, who took part with the persecutors.
Al-Khattab submits to Islam:
During this period, 'Umar Al-Khattab adopted Islam. In him the new faith gained a
valuable adherent and an important factor in the future development and propagation of Islam. Hitherto he had been a violent
opposer of the Prophet and a bitter enemy of Islam. His conversion is said to have been worked by the miraculous effect on
his mind of a Surah of the Quran which his sister was reading in her house, where he had gone with the intention of killing
her for adopting Islam. Thus the party of the Prophet had been strengthened by the conversation by his uncle Hamza, a man
of great valor and merit; and of Abu Bakr and 'Umar, both men of great energy and reputation. The Muslims now ventured to
perform their devotions in public. Quraish divided into two factions:
Alarmed at the bold part which
the Prophet and his followers were now able to assume, and roused by the return of the deputies from Abyssinia and the announcement
of their unsuccessful mission, the Quraish determined to check by a decisive blow any further progress of Islam. Towards this
end, in the seventh year of the mission, they made a solemn covenant against the descendants of Hashim and Muttalib, engaging
themselves to contract no marriage with any of them and to have no communication with them. Upon this, the Quraish became
divided into two factions, and the two families of Hashim and Muttalib all repaired Abu Talib as their chief.
Lahab's hatred of Islam:
Abu Lahab, the Prophet's uncle, however, out of his inveterate hatred of his nephew and
his doctrine, went over to the opposite party, whose chief was Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb, of the family of Umayya. The persecuted
party, Muslims as well as idolaters betook themselves to a defile on the eastern skirts of Makka. They lived in this defensive
position for three years. The provisions, which they had carried with them, were soon exhausted. They would have probably
perished entirely had it not been for the sympathy and occasional help received from less bigoted compatriots.
of the Quraish:
Towards the beginning of the tenth year of the mission, reconciliation was concluded between the
Quraish and the two families of Hashim and Abdul Muttalib through the intermediation of Hisham, Ibn Umar, and Zobeir, Ibn
Abu Umayya. Thus, the alliance against the two families was abolished, and they were able to return to Makka.
the period the Prophet and his kinspeople passed in their defensive position, Islam made no progress outside; but in the sacred
months, when violence was considered sacrilege, the Prophet used to come out of his temporary prison to preach Islam to the
Death of Abu Talib and Khadijah:
In the following year, both Abu Talib and Khadijah died. Thus
the Prophet lost Abu Talib the kind guardian of his youth who had hitherto protected him against his enemies, and in Khadijah
his most encouraging companion. She was ever his angel of hope and consolation. The Prophet, weighed down by the loss of his
amiable protector and his beloved wife, without hope of turning the Quraish from idolatry, with a saddened heart, yet full
of trust, resolved to exercise his ministry in some of her field. He chose Taif, a town about sixty miles east of Makka, where
he went accompanied by a faithful servant Zaid.
The tribe of Thakif, who were the inhabitants of Taif, received
Mohammed very coldly. However, he stayed there for one month. Though the more
considerate and better sort of men treated him with a little respect, the slaves and common people refused to listen to his
teachings; they were outrageously indignant at his invitation to abandon the gods they worshipped with such freedom of morals
and lightness of heart. At length they rose against him, and bringing him to the wall of the city, obliged him to depart and
return to Makka.
People of Yathrib (Madina) accept? Prophet:
The repulse greatly discouraged his followers;
however, the Prophet boldly continued to preach to the public assemblies at the pilgrimage and gained several new converts,
among whom were six of the city of Yahtrib (later called Madina), of the Jewish tribe of Khazraj. When these Yathribites returned
home, they spread the news among their people that a prophet had arisen among the Arabs who was to call them to Allah and put an end to their inquiries.
to the Heavens) on a creature called Buraq:
In the twelfth year of his mission, the Prophet made his night journey
from Makka to Jerusalem, and thence to heaven. His journey, known in history as Miraj (Ascension) was a real bodily one and
not only a vision. It was at this time that Allah ordered the Muslims to pray the five daily prayers.
Allah had said:
Surah 17.Al-Isra (The Night Journey), verse 1
Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque
to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One
Who heareth and seeth (all things).
Abbas Ibn Malik
reported that Malik Ibn Sasaa said that Allah's Messenger described to them his Night Journey saying: "While
I was lying in Al-Hatim or Al-Hijr, suddenly someone came to me and cut my body open from here to here." I asked Al-Jarud,
who was by my side, "What does he mean?" He said: "It means from his throat to his pubic area," or said, "From the top of
the chest." The Prophet further said, "He then took out my heart. Then a gold tray of Belief was brought to me and my heart
was washed and was filled (with Belief) and then returned to its original place. Then a white animal which was smaller than
a mule and bigger than a donkey was brought to me." (On this Al-Jarud asked: "Was it in the Buraq, O Abu Hamza?" I (Anas)
replied in the affirmative. The Prophet said: "The animal's step (was so huge that it) reached the farthest point within the
reach of the animals' sight - I was carried on it.
Miraj - Mohammed's encounter with Adam (Hadith):
Gabriel set out with me till we reached the nearest heaven.
"When he asked for the gate to
be opened, it was asked, 'Who is it?' Gabriel answered, 'Gabriel.' It was asked, 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied,
'Mohammed .' It was asked, 'Has Mohammed been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said. 'He
is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' The gate was opened, and when I went over the first heaven, I saw Adam there.
Gabriel said to me: 'This is your father, Adam; pay him your greetings.' So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to
me and said: 'You are welcomed, O pious son and pious Prophet.'
- Mohammed's encounter with John and Jesus (Hadith):
Then Gabriel ascended with me till we reached the second heaven. Gabriel asked for the gate to
be opened. It was asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel answered: 'Gabriel.' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied,
'Mohammed .' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel answered in the affirmative.
Then it was said: 'He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' The gate was opened. "When I went over the second heaven,
here I saw John (Yahya) and Jesus (Isa), who were cousins of each other. Gabriel said to me: "These are John and Jesus; pay
them your greetings.' So I greeted them and both of them returned my greetings to me and said, 'You are welcomed, O pious
brother and pious Prophet.'
Miraj - Mohammed's
encounter with Joseph (Hadith):
Then Gabriel ascended with me to the third heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was
asked 'Who is it?' And Gabriel replied: 'Gabriel.' It was asked, 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied, 'Mohammed .' It was asked, 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative.
Then it was said: 'He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is!' The gate was opened, and when I went over the third heaven
there I saw Joseph (Yusuf), Gabriel said to me: 'This is Joseph, pay him your greetings.' So I greeted him and he returned
the greetings to me and said: 'You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.'
Miraj - Mohammed's encounter with Enoch (Hadith):
ascended with me to the fourth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked 'Who is it?' Gabriel replied, 'Gabriel'
It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied: 'Mohammed .' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative.
Then it was said: 'He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is!' "The gate was opened, and when I went over the fourth
heaven, there I saw Enoch (Idris), Gabriel said to me: 'This is Enoch; pay him your greetings.' So I greeted him and he returned
the greetings to me and said: 'You are welcomed O pious brother and pious Prophet.' Miraj - Mohammed's encounter with Aaron (Hadith):
Then Gabriel ascended with me to the fifth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was
asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel replied: 'Gabriel.' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied 'Mohammed.' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative.
Then it was said: 'He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is!' So when I went over the fifth heaven, there I saw Aaron
(Harun), Gabriel said to me: "This is Aaron; pay your greetings.' So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and
said: "You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet."
- Mohammed's encounter with Moses (Hadith):
Then Gabriel ascended with me to the sixth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was
asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel replied: 'Gabriel.' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied: 'Mohammed .' It was said: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative.
It was said: 'He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' "When I went over the sixth heaven, there I saw Moses (Musa).
Gabriel said to me: "This is Moses; pay him your greeting. So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said:
"You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet." When I left him (Moses) he wept. Someone asked him: 'What makes you
weep?' Moses said: 'I weep because after me there has been sent (as Prophet) a young man whose followers will enter Paradise
in greater numbers than my followers.'
- Mohammed's encounter with Abraham (Hadith):
Then Gabriel ascended with me to the seventh heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It
was asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel replied: 'Gabriel.' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied: 'Mohammed .' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative.
Then it said: 'He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' "So when I went (over the seventh heaven), there I saw Abraham
(Ibrahim). Gabriel said to me: 'This is your father; pay your greetings to him.' So I greeted him and he returned the greetings
to me and said: 'You are welcomed, O pious son and pious Prophet.'
Then I was made to ascend to Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (the
Lote Tree of the utmost boundary). Behold! Its fruits were like the jars of Hajr (a place near Madina) and its leaves were
as big as the ears of elephants. Gabriel said: "This is the Lote Tree of the utmost and boundary.' Behold! There ran four
rivers, two were hidden and two were visible, I asked: 'What are these two kinds of rivers, O Gabriel?' He replied: 'As for
the hidden rivers, they are two rivers in Paradise and the visible rivers are the Nile and the Euphrates.'
advises Mohammed to plea to Allah to lessen prayers:
"Then Al-Bayt-al-Ma'mur (the Sacred House) was shown to me and a container full of wine and
another full of milk and a third full of honey were brought to me. I took the milk. Gabriel remarked: 'This is the Islamic
religion which you and your followers are following.' Then the prayers were enjoined on me: they were fifty prayers a day.
When I returned, I passed by Moses, who asked me; 'What have you been ordered to do?' I replied: 'I have been ordered to offer
fifty prayers a day.' Moses said: 'Your followers cannot bear fifty prayers a day, and by Allah I have tested people before you, and I have tried my level
best with Bani Israel in vain. Go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your followers'' burden.' So I went back,
and Allah reduced ten prayers for me. Then again I came to Moses, but
he repeated the same as he had said before. Then again I went back to Allah , and He reduced ten more prayers. When I came to Moses he
said the same. I went back to Allah , and He ordered me to observe ten prayers a day. When I came
back to Moses, he repeated the same advice, so I went back to Allah and was ordered to observe five prayers a day.
I came back to Moses, he said: 'What have you been ordered?' I replied: 'I have been ordered to observe five prayers a day.'
He said: 'Your followers cannot bear five prayers a day, and no doubt, I have experienced the people before you, and I have
tried my level best with Bani Israel, so go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lesson your followers' burden.' I said:
'I have requested so much of my Lord that I feel ashamed, but I am satisfied now and surrender to Allah's Order.' When I left, I heard a voice saying: 'I have passed
My order and have lessened the burden of My worshippers.'"
Women's' Oath - People of Yathrib (Madina) submit to
In this year, twelve men of Yathrib, of whom ten were of the Jewish tribe of Khazraj and the other two of
Aws, came to Makkan and took an oath of fidelity to the Prophet at Al-Aqaba, a hill on the north of that city. This oath was
called the Women's' Oath, not that any women were present at this time, but because a man was not thereby obliged to take
up arms in defense of the Prophet or his religion, it being the same oath that was afterwards exacted of the women. This oath
was as follows: "We will not associate anything with Allah ; we will not steal nor commit adultery or fornication, nor
kill our children (as the pagan Arabs used to do when they apprehended that they would not be able to maintain them), nor
forge calumnies; we will obey the Prophet in everything that is reasonable, and we will be faithful to him in well and
sorrow." When they had solemnly engaged to do all this, the Prophet sent one of his disciples, Mus'ab Ibn Umair, home with
them to teach them the fundamental doctrines and ceremonies of the religion. Mus'ab, having arrived at Yathrib by the assistance
of those who had been formerly converted, gained several new converts, particularly Usaid Ibn Khudair, a chief of man of the
city, and Sa'd Ibn Mu'adh, prince of the tribe of Aws. Islam spread so fast that there was a scarce a house that did not have
some Muslims in it.
The next year, being the thirteenth of the mission (A.D. 622) Mus'ab returned from Yathrib accompanied
by seventy-three men and two women of that city who had adopted Islam, besides others who were as yet unbelievers. On their
arrival, these Yathribites immediately sent to the Prophet and invited him to their city. The Prophet was now in great need
of such assistance, for his opponents had by this time grown so powerful in Makka that he could not stay there much longer
without imminent danger. He therefore accepted their proposal and met them one night by appointment at Al-Aqaba attended by
his uncle Al-Abbas, who, though he was not then a convert, wished his nephew well.
Al-Abbas made a speech to those
of Yathrib wherein he told them that, as the Prophet Mohammed was obliged to quit his native city and seek shelter elsewhere, and
they had offered him their protection, they would do well not to deceive him; and that if they were not firmly resolved to
defend and not to betray him, they had better declare their minds and let him provide for his safety in some other manner.
Upon their professing their sincerity, the Prophet swore to be faithful to them, on condition that they should worship none
but Allah observe the precepts of Islam, obey the Prophet in all that
was right, and protect him against all insults as heartily as they would their wives and families. They then asked him what
would be their return, if they should happen to be killed in the cause of Allah ; he answered: "Paradise," whereupon they pledged their faith
to him and his cause.
The Hijra - People of Yathrib (Madina) welcome Muslims:
The Prophet then selected
twelve men out of their number to act as his delegates. Thus was concluded the second covenant of Al-Aqaba. The Yathribites
returned home leaving the Prophet to arrange for the journey to their city. The Prophet directed his followers to seek immediate
safety at Yathrib, which they accordingly did. About one hundred families silently disappeared from Makka and proceeded to
Yathrib, where they were received with enthusiasm and much hospitality. Finally, all the disciples had gone to Yathrib. The
Prophet alone remained at Makka, keeping with him only his young cousin, 'Ali, and his devoted friend Abu Bakr.
Makkans plot to Kill Allah's Prophet :
Makkans, fearing the consequence of this new alliance, began to think seriously of preventing Mohammed from escaping to Yathrib. They met in all haste. After several milder
expedients had been rejected, they decided that he should be killed. They agreed that one man should be chosen out of every
tribe and that each man should strike a blow at him with his sword so that responsibility of the guilt would rest equally
on all tribes. The Bani Hashim, Mohammed's own tribe, were more inferior and therefore would not be able to
revenge their kinsman's death.
A number of noble youths were selected for the bloody deed. As the night advanced, the
assassins posted themselves round the Prophet's dwelling. They watched all night long, waiting to murder Mohammed when he should leave his house at the early dawn. By some means the
Prophet had warned of the danger, and he directed 'Ali to lie down in his place and wrap himself up in his green clock, which
he did. The Prophet miraculously escaped through the window and he repaired to the house of Abu Bakr, unperceived by the conspirators
who had already assembled at the Prophet's door. They, in the meantime, looking through a crevice and seeing 'Ali, whom they
mistook for Mohammed himself, asleep, continued watching there until morning. When 'Ali
arose, they found themselves deceived. The fury of the Quraish was now unbounded. The news that the would be assassins
had returned unsuccessful and that Mohammed had escaped aroused their whole energy. A price of a hundred camels
was set upon Mohammed's head. A narration 'Aisha Bint Abu Bakr (Prophet's wife):
'Aisha Bint Abu Bakr (the wife of the Prophet):"I never remembered my parents believing in any religion other than
the true religion (Islam), and (I don't remember) a single day passing without our being visited by Allah's Messenger in the morning and in the evening. When the
Muslims were put to test (troubled by the pagans), Abu Bakr set out migrating to the land of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), and when
he reached Bark-al-Ghimad, Ibn Ad-Daghina, the chief of the tribe of Qara, met him and said, 'O Abu Bakr! Where are you going?'
Abu Bakr replied: 'My people have turned me out (of my country), so I want to wander on the earth and worship my Lord.' Ibn
Ad-Dhagina said: 'O Abu Bakr! A man like you should not leave his homeland, nor should he be driven out, because you help
the destitute, earn their living, and you keep good relations with your kith and kin, help the weak and the poor, entertain
guests generously, and help the calamity-stricken persons. Therefore, I am your protector. Go back and worship your Lord in
"So Abu Bakr returned and Ibn Ad-Daghina accompanied him. In the evening Ibn Ad-Dhagina visited
the nobles of Quraish and said to them. 'A man like Abu Bakr should not leave his homeland, nor should he be driven out. Do
you (Quraish) drive out a man who helps the destitute, earns their living, keeps good relations with his kith and kin, helps
the weak and poor, entertains guests generously and helps the calamity-stricken people?' So the people of Quraish could not
refuse Ibn Ad-Dhagina's protection, and they said to Ibn Ad-Daghina: 'Let Abu Bakr worship his Lord in his house. He can pray
and recite there whatever he likes, but he should not hurt us with it, and should not do it publicly, because we are afraid
that he may affect our women and children." Ibn Ad-Dhagina told Abu Bakr all of that. Abu Bakr stayed in that state, worshipping
his Lord in his house. He did not pray publicly, nor did he recite Quran outside his house. Abu Bakr builds Mosque:
a thought occurred to Abu Bakr to build a mosque in front of his house, and there he used to pray and recite the Quran. The
women and children of the pagans began to gather around him in great number. They used to wonder at him and look at him. Abu
Bakr was a man who used to weep too much, and he could not help weeping or reciting the Quran. That situation scared the nobles
of the pagans of Quraish, so they sent for Ibn Ad-Daghina. When he came to them, they said: 'We accepted your protection of
Abu Bakr on condition that he should worship his Lord in his house, but he has violated the conditions and he has built a
mosque in front of his house where he prays and recites the Quran publicly. We are now afraid that he may affect our women
and children unfavourably. So, prevent him from that. If he likes to confine the worship of his Lord to his house, he may
do so, but if he insists on doing that openly, ask him to release you from your obligation to protect him, for we dislike
to break our pact with you, but we deny Abu Bakr the right to announce his act publicly.'
Ibn Ad-Dhagina went to Abu
Bakr and said: 'O Abu Bakr! You know well what contract I have made on your behalf; now, you are either to abide by it, or
else release me from my obligation of protecting you, because I do not want the Arabs to hear that my people have dishonored
a contract I have made on behalf of another man.' Abu Bakr replied: 'I release you from your pact to protect me and am pleased
with the protection from Allah .'
Aisha's narration's continues: "At that
time the Prophet was in Makka, and he said to the Muslims: 'In a dream I have been shown your migration place, a land of date
palm trees, between two mountains, the two stony tracts.' So, some people migrated to Madina, and most of those people who
had previously migrated to the land of Ethiopia, returned to Madina. Abu Bakr also prepared to leave for Madina, but Allah's
Messenger said to him: 'Wait for awhile, because I hope that
I will be allowed to migrate also.' Abu Bakr replied: 'Do you indeed expect this? Let my father be sacrificed for you!' The
Prophet said: 'Yes.' So Abu Bakr did not migrate for the sake of Allah's Messenger in order to accompany him. He fed two she
camels he possessed with the leaves of As-Samur tree that fell on being struck by a stick for four months. "One
day, while we were sitting in Abu Bakr's house at noon, someone said to Abu Bakr: 'This is Allah's Messenger with his head covered coming at a time at which
he never used to visit us before.' Abu Bakr said: 'May my parents be sacrificed for him. By Allah he has not come at this hour except for a great necessity.'
So Allah's Messenger came and asked permission to enter, and he was allowed
to enter. When he entered, he said to Abu Bakr: "Tell everyone who is present with you to go away.' Abu Bakr replied: 'There
are none but your family, May my father be sacrificed for you, O Allah's Messenger!' The Prophet said: 'I have been given permission
to migrate.' Abu Bakr said: 'Shall I accompany you? May my father be sacrificed for you, O Allah's Messenger!' Allah's Messenger said: 'Yes.' Abu Bakr said, 'O Allah's Messenger! May my father be sacrificed for you, take one of
these two she-camels of mine.' Allah's Messenger replied: 'I will accept it with payment.' So we
prepared the baggage quickly and put some journey food in a leather bag for them. Asma, Abu Bakr's daughter, cut a piece from
her waist belt and tied the mouth of the leather bag with it, and for that reason she was named 'Dhat-un-Nitaqain' (the owner
of two belts).
"Then Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr reached
a cave on the mountain of Thaur and stayed there for three nights. Abdullah Ibn Abi Bakr who was an intelligent and sagacious
youth, used to stay with them overnight. He used to leave them before daybreak so that in the morning he would be with Quraish
as if he had spent the night in Makka. He would keep in mind any plot made against them and when it became dark he would go
and inform them of it. 'Amir Ibn Fuhaira, the freed slave of Abu Bakr, used to bring the milch sheep (of his master, Abu Bakr)
to them a little while after nightfall in order to rest the sheep there. So they always had fresh milk at night, the milk
of their sheep, and the milk which they warmed by throwing heated stones in it. 'Amir Ibn Fuhaira would then call the herd
away when it was still dark (before daybreak). He did the same in each of those three nights. Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr
had hired a man from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail from the family of Bani Abd Ibn Adi as an expert guide, and he was in alliance
with the family of Al-As Ibn Wail As-Sahmi and he was in the religion of the infidels of Quraish. The Prophet and Abu Bakr
trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and took his promise to bring their two she-camels to the cave of the mountain
of Thaur in the morning after three nights later. And when they set out, Amir Ibn Futhaira and the guide went along with them
and the guide led them, along the seashore."(Sahih
The nephew of Suraqa Ibn Ju'sham said that his father informed him that he heard Suraqa Ibn Jusham
saying: "The messengers of the pagans of Quraish came to us declaring that they had assigned for the persons who would kill
or arrest Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr, a reward equal to their bloodmoney.
While I was sitting in one of the gatherings of my tribe, Bani Mudlij, a man from them came to us and stood up while we were
sitting and said: 'O Suraqa! No , I have just seen some people far away on the seashore, and I think they are Mohammed and his companions.' I, too, realized that it must have been they.
But I said: 'No, it is not they, but you have seen so-and-so and so-and-so, whom we saw set out.' I stayed in the gathering
for a while and then got up and left for my home, and ordered my slave-girl to get my horse, which was behind a hillock, and
keep it ready for me.
"Then I took my spear and left by
the back door of my house dragging the lower end of the spear on the ground and keeping it low. Then I reached my horse, mounted
it and made it gallop. When I approached them (Mohammed and Abu Bakr), my horse stumbled and I fell down from it. Then I stood
up, gold hold of my quiver and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether I should harm them or not, and the
lot which I disliked came out. But I remounted my horse and let it gallop, giving no importance to the divining arrows. When
I heard the recitation of the Qur'an by Allah's Messenger who did not look hither and thither while Abu Bakr was doing it
often, suddenly the forelegs of my horse sank into the ground up to the knees, and I fell down from it. Then I rebuked it,
and it got up but could hardly take out its forelegs from the ground, and when it stood up straight again, its forelegs caused
dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Then again I drew lots with the divining arrows, and the lot which I disliked came
out. So I called upon them to feel secure. They stopped, and I remounted my horse and went to them. When I saw how I had been
hampered from harming them, it came to my mind that the cause of Allah's Messenger (Islam) would become victorious. So I said
to them: 'Your people have assigned a reward equal to bloodmoney for your head.' Then I told them all the plans the people
of Makka had made concerning them. Then I offered them some journey food and goods, but they refused to take anything and
did not ask for anything, but the Prophet said: 'Do not tell others about us.' Then I requested him to write for me a statement
of security and peace. He ordered 'Amir Ibn Fuhaira, who wrote it for me on a parchment, and then Allah's Messenger proceeded
on his way." (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
travels to Madina (Hijra):
"Narrated 'Urwa Ibn Az-Zubair: "Allah's Messenger met Az Zubair in a caravan of Muslim merchants who
were returning from Sham. Az -Zubair provided Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr with white clothes to wear. When the
Muslims of Madina heard the new of the departure of Allah's Messenger from Makka (towards Madina), they started going
to the Harra every morning. They would wait for him till the heat of the noon forced them to return. One day, after waiting
for a long while, they returned home, and when they went into their houses, a Jew climbed up to the roof of one of the forts
of his people to look for something, and he saw Allah's Messenger and his companions, dressed in white clothes,
emerging out of the desert mirage.
The Jew could not help shouting at the top of his voice: 'O you Arabs!
Here is your great man whom you have been waiting for!' So all the Muslims rushed to their arms and received Allah's Messenger on the summit of Harra. The Prophet turned with
them to the right and alighted at the quarters of Bani Amr Ibn Auf, and this was on Monday in the month of Rabi ul Awal. Abu
Bakr stood up, receiving the people, while Allah's Messenger sat down and kept silent. Some of the Ansar who
came and had not seen Allah's Messenger before began greeting Abu Bakr, but when the sunshine
fell on Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr came forward and shaded him with his
sheet, only then the people came to know Allah's Messenger.
Allah's Messenger stayed with Bani Amr Ibn Auf for ten nights and
established the mosque (Mosque of Quba) which was founded on piety. Allah's Messenger prayed in it and then mounted his she-camel and
proceeded on, accompanied by the people till his she-camel knelt down at the place of the Mosque of Allah's Messenger at Madina. Some Muslims used to pray there in those
days, and that place was a yard for drying dates belonging to Suhail and Sahl, the orphan boys who were under the guardianship
of Asad In Zurara. When his she-camel knelt down, Allah's Messenger said: 'This place, Allah willing, will be our abiding place.' Allah's Messenger then called the two boys and told them to suggest
a price for that yard so that he might take it as a mosque. The two boys said: 'No, but we will give it as a gift, O Allah's
Messenger!' Allah's Messenger then built a mosque there. The Prophet himself started
carrying unburned bricks for its building and while doing so, he was saying: 'This load is better than the load of Khaibar,
for it is more pious in the Sight of Allah and purer and better rewardable.' He was also saying: 'O Allah
! The actual reward is the reward in the Hereafter,
so bestow Your Mercy on the Ansar and the Emigrants.' Thus the Prophet recited (by way of proverb) the poem of some Muslim
poet whose name is unknown to me." (Ibn Shibab said, 'In the hadiths, it does not occur that Allah's Messenger recited a complete poetic verse other than this
one.') (Sahih Al-Bukhari) Hijra - Islamic Calendar marks this date:
Thus was accomplished the hijra,
or the flight of Mohammed as called in European annals, from which the Islamic "Hijri" calendar
Note: The Hijri Calendar was established after that date, 638 C.E. (Christian Era) and the date of Hijra was
chosen as a suitable, non-pompous reference point for the beginning of the calendar. Yathrib renamed Al-Madina,
Al-Munawara - "The Illuminated City":
When the Prophet Mohammed and his companions settled at Yathrib, this city changed its name,
and henceforth was called, Al-Madina, Al-Munawara, the Illuminated City, or more shortly, Madina, the City. It is situated
about eleven-day's journey to the north of Makka. At that time it was ruled by two Kahtanite tribes, Aws and Khazraj. These
two tribes, however, were constantly quarreling among themselves. It was only about that time when the Prophet announced his
mission at Makka that these tribes, after long years of continuous warfare, entered on a period of comparative peace. When
the Prophet settled at Madina, the tribes of Aws and Khazraj forgot entirely their old feuds and were united together in the
bond of Islam. Their old divisions were soon effaced and the Ansar", the Helpers of the Prophet, became the common designation
of all Medinites who had helped the Prophet in his cause. Those who emigrated with him from Makka received the title of "Muhajereen"
or the Emigrants. The Prophet, in order to unite both classes in closer bonds, established between them a brotherhood, which
linked them together as children of the same parents, with the Prophet as their guardian.
Allah's Apostle Settles in Madina:
The first step the Prophet took, after his settlement at Madina, was to built a mosque for
the worship of Allah according to principles of Islam. Also, houses for the accommodation
of the emigrants were soon erected.
Mohammed's Charter - Jews and Muslims unite to defend against enemies:
Madina and its suburb were at this time inhabited by three distinct parties,
the Emigrants, the Helpers, and the Jews. In order to weld them together into an orderly federation, the Prophet granted a
charter to the people, clearly defining their rights and obligations. This charter represented the framework of the first
commonwealth organized by the Prophet. It started thus: "In the name of he Most Merciful and Compassionate
Lord, this charter is given by Mohammed , the Messenger of Allah to all believers, whether of Quraish or Madina, and
all individuals of whatever origin who have made common cause with them, who shall all constitute one nation."
following are some extracts from the charter:
"The state of peace and war shall be common to all Muslims; no one
among them shall have the right of concluding peace with, or declaring war against, the enemies of his co-religionists. The
Jews who attach themselves to our commonwealth shall be protected from all insults and vexations; they shall have an equal
right with our people to our assistance and good offices. The Jews of the various branches and all others doiciled in Madina
shall form with the Muslims one composite nation; they shall practice their religion as freely as the Muslims. The allies
of the Jews shall enjoy the same security and freedom. The guilty shall be pursued and punished. The Jews shall join the Muslims
in defending Madina all enemies.
The interior of Madina shall be a sacred place for all who accept this charter. All
true Muslims shall hold in abhorrence every man guilty of crime, injustice or disorder; no one shall uphold the culpable,
though he be his nearest kin."
After dealing with the interior management of the State, the charter concluded as follows:
future disputes arising among those who accept this charter shall be referred, under Allah to the Prophet."
Thus this charter put an end to the
state of anarchy that prevailed among the Arabs. It constituted the Prophet Mohammed as chief magistrate of the nation. Charter faces Mutiny
(Inside enemies) - The Hypocrites and Unsatisfied Jews:
The party of the Ansars, or Helpers, included some lukewarm
converts who retained an ill-concealed predilection for idolatry. These were headed by Abdullah Ibn Ubai, a man with some
claims to distinction. They ostensibly joined Islam, but in secret were disaffected. They often were a source of considerable
danger to the newborn commonwealth and required unceasing watchfulness on the part of the Prophet. Towards them he always
showed the greatest patience and forbearance, hoping in the end to win them over to the faith, which expectations were fully
justified by the result. While the death of Abdullah Ibn Ubai, his party which were known as the party of the "Munafiqeen"
(the Hypocrites) disappeared.
The Jews who constituted the third party of the Medinites were, however, the most serious
element of danger. No kindness or generous treatment on the part of the Prophet would seem to satisfy them. They soon broke
off and ranged themselves with the enemies of the new faith. They did not hesitate to declare openly that they preferred idolatry,
with its attendant evils, to the faith of Islam. Thus, the Prophet had to keep an eye on his enemies outside Madina, on the
one hand, and those within the city on the other.
The Makkans who had sworn Mohammed's death were well acquainted, thanks to the party of the Hypocrites
and of the Jews at Madina, with the real forces of the Muslims. They also knew that the Jews had accepted Mohammed's alliance only from motives of temporary expedience and that they
would break away from him to join the idolaters as soon as the latter showed themselves in the vicinity of Madina. The safety
of the state required the proscription of the traitors who were secretly giving information to the common enemy. About six
men were executed for high treason of this nature. Madina under Sabotage style attacks on Food, Cattle etc...:
the second year of the hijrah, the idolaters of Makka began a series of hostile acts against the Muslims of Madina. They sent
men in parties to commit depredations on the fruit trees of the Muslims of Madina and to carry away their flocks. Now came
the moment of severest trial to Islam. It became the duty of the Prophet to take serious measures to guard against any plot
rising from within or a sudden attack from without.
Battle of Badr - Makkan Troop formations approaching Madina:
Prophet put Madina in a state of military discipline. He had
to send frequent reconnoitering parties to guard against any sudden onslaught. No sooner did the Prophet organize hi state
than a large well-equipped army of the Makkans was afield. A force constituting of one thousand men marched under Abu Jahl,
a great enemy of Islam, towards Madina to attack the city. The Muslims received timely notice of their enemies' intention.
A body of three hundred adherents, of whom two thirds were citizens of Madina, was gathered to forestall the idolaters by
occupying the valley of Badr, situated near the sea between Makka and Madina. When the Prophet saw the army of the infidels
approaching the valley, he prayed that the little band of Muslims might not be destroyed.
Victory - Battle Badr
The army of the Makkans advanced into the open space which separated the Muslims from the idolaters. According
to Arab usage, the battle was began by simple combats. The engagement that became general. The result of the battle was that
the Makkans were driven back with great loss, despite the fact that they out-numbered the Muslims. Several of their chiefs
were slain, including Abu Jahl.
Allah's Apostle sets rules for treatment of POWs:
A large number of idolaters remained prisoners in the hands of the Muslims.
They were, contrary to all usage and traditions of the Arabs, treated with the greatest humanity.
The Prophet gave
strict orders that sympathy should be shown to them in their misfortune and that they should be treated with kindness. These
instructions were faithfully obeyed by the Muslims to whose care the prisoners were confided. Dealing with this event, Sir
William Muir, in his book Life of Mohammed , quotes one of the prisoners saying: "Blessing be on the men of Madina;
they made us ride, while they themselves walked; they gave us wheaten bread to eat, when there was little of it, contenting
themselves with dates."
Almighty Allah said:
(The Family Of 'Imran), verse 123, 124, 125, 126 and 127 Allah
had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude. Remember
thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent
down? "Yea, - if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would
help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught. Allah made it but a message of hope for you, and an assurance
to your hearts: (in any case) there is no help except from Allah. The Exalted, the Wise: That He might cut off a fringe of
the Unbelievers or expose them to infamy, and they should then be turned back, frustrated of their purpose.
remarkable circumstances, which led to the victory of Badr, and results, which followed from it, made a deep impression on
the minds of the Muslims; the angels of the heaven had battled on their side against their enemies. The division of the spoils
created some dissension between the Muslim warriors. For the moment, the Prophet divided it equally among all. Subsequently,
a Qur'an revelation laid down a rule for future division of the spoils. According to this rule, a fifth was reserved for the
public treasury for the support of the poor and indigent, while the distribution of the remaining four fifths was left to
the discretion of the Chief of the State. Makkans Avenge Loss in Badr - Battle of Uhud:
The next battle
between the Quraish and the Muslims was the battle of Uhud, a hill about four miles to the north of Madina. The idolaters,
in order to avenge their loss at Badr, made tremendous preparations for a new attack upon the Muslims. They collected an army
of three thousand strong men, of whom seven hundred were armed with coats of mail, and two hundred horses. These forces advanced
under the conduct of Abu Sufyan and encamped at a village six miles from Madina, where they gave themselves up to spoiling
the fields and flocks of the Medinites.
The Prophet being much inferior to his enemies in number, at first determined
to keep himself within the town and to receive them there; but afterwards, the advice of some of his companions prevailing
he marched out against them at the head of one thousand men, of whom one hundred were armed with coats of mail; but he had
no more than one horse, besides his own, in his whole army. With these forces he halted at Mount Uhud. He was soon abandoned
by Abdullah Ibn Ubai, the leader of the Hypocrites, with three hundred of his followers. Thus, the small force of the Prophet
was reduced to seven hundred.
At Mount Uhud the Muslim troops passed the night, and in the morning, after offering
their prayers, they advanced into the plain. The Prophet contrived to have the hill at his back, and, the better to secure
his men from being surrounded, he placed fifty archers on the height in the rear, behind the troops, and gave them strict
orders not to leave their posts whatever might happen. When they came to engage, the Prophet had superiority at first. But
afterward, his archers left their position for the sake of plunder, thus allowing the enemy to attack the Muslims in the fear
and surround them. The Prophet lost the day and very nearly lost his life. He was struck down by a shower of stones and wounded
in the face by two arrows, and one of his front teeth was broken. Of the Muslims, seventy men were killed, among whom was
the Prophet's uncle Hamza. Of the infidels, twenty-two men were lost.
Exhausted Quraish leave Madina victorious:
Quraish were too exhausted to follow up their advantage, either by attacking Madina or by driving the Muslims from the heights
of Uhud. They retreated from the Medinite territories after barbarously mutilating the corpses of their dead enemies.
(The Family Of 'Imran), verse 139, 140, 141, 142 and 143
So lose not heart, nor fall into despair: For ye must gain mastery if
ye are true in Faith. If a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the others. Such days (of varying
fortunes) We give to men and men by turns: that Allah may know those that believe, and that He may take to Himself from your
ranks Martyr-witnesses (to Truth). And Allah loveth not those that do wrong. Allah's object also is to purge those that are
true in Faith and to deprive of blessing Those that resist Faith. Did ye think that ye would enter Heaven without Allah testing
those of you who fought hard (In His Cause) and remained steadfast? Ye did indeed wish for death before ye met him: Now ye
have seen him with your own eyes, (And ye flinch!)
Allah the Exalted also said:
Surah 3.Aal-E-Imran (The Family Of 'Imran), verse
151, 152, 153 and 154
Soon shall We cast terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers, for that
they joined companions with Allah, for which He had sent no authority: their abode will be the Fire: And evil is the home
of the wrong-doers! Allah did indeed fulfil His promise to you when ye with His permission Were about to annihilate your enemy,-until
ye flinched and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed it after He brought you in sight (of the booty) which ye
covet. Among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then did He divert you from your
foes in order to test you but He forgave you: For Allah is full of grace to those who believe. Behold! ye were climbing up
the high ground, without even casting a side glance at any one, and the Messenger in your rear was calling you back. There
did Allah give you one distress after another by way of requital, to teach you not to grieve for (the booty) that had escaped
you and for (the ill) that had befallen you. For Allah is well aware of all that ye do. After (the excitement) of the distress,
He sent down calm on a band of you overcome with slumber, while another band was stirred to anxiety by their own feelings,
Moved by wrong suspicions of Allah-suspicions due to ignorance. They said: "What affair is this of ours?" Say thou: "Indeed,
this affair is wholly Allah's." They hide in their minds what they dare not reveal to thee. They say (to themselves): "If
we had had anything to do with this affair, We should not have been in the slaughter here." Say: "Even if you had remained
in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death"; but (all this
was) that Allah might test what is in your breasts and purge what is in your hearts. For Allah knoweth well the secrets of
Narrated Al-Baraa' Ibn Azib: "The Prophet
appointed Abdullah Ibn Jubair as the commander of the infantry men (archers) who were fifty on the day (of the battle) of
Uhud. He instructed them: 'Stick to your place, and don't leave it even if you see birds snatching us, till I send for you;
and if you see that we have defeated the infidels and made them flee, even then you should not leave your place till I send
for you.' Then the infidels were defeated. By Allah I saw the women fleeing lifting up their clothes revealing
their leg bangles and their legs. So, the companions of Abdullah Ibn Jubair said:
"The booty! O people, the booty! Your companions have become victorious, what are you waiting for now?" Abdullah Ibn Jubair
said: "Have you forgotten what Allah's Messenger said to you?" They replied: "By Allah! We will go to the people (the enemy)
and collect our share from the war booty." But when they
went to them, they were forced to turn back defeated. At that time Allah's Messenger to their rear was calling them back. Only twelve
men remained with the Prophet, and the infidels martyred seventy men from us.
"The Prophet and his companions caused the Pagans to lose one hundred and forty men, seventy of whom
were captured and seventy were killed. Then Abu Sufyan asked three times: 'Is Mohammed present among these people?' The Prophet
ordered his companions not to answer him. Then he asked three times: 'Is Ibn Abu Quhafa present amongst these people?' He
asked again three times: 'Is Ibn Al Khattab present among these people?' He then returned to his companions and said: 'As
for these (men), they have been killed.' 'Umar could not control himself and said to Abu Sufyan: ' You told a lie, by Allah!
O enemy of Allah! All those you have mentioned are alive, and the thing which will make you unhappy is still there.' Abu Sufyan
said: 'Our victory today compensates for yours in the Battle of Badr, and in war (the victory) is always undecided and is
shared in turns by the belligerents. You will find some of your killed men mutilated, but I did not urge my men to do so,
yet I do not feel sorry for their deed.' After that he started reciting cheerfully: 'O Hubal, be superior!' On that the Prophet
said (to his companions): 'Why don't you answer hiback?' They said: 'O Allah's Messenger! What shall we say?' He said: 'Say,
Allah is Higher and more Sublime.' Then Abu Sufyan said: 'We have the idol of Al-Uzza, and you have no 'Uzza.' The Prophet
said (to his companions): 'Why don't you answer him back?' They asked: 'O Allah's Messenger! What shall we say?' He
said: 'Say Allah is our Helper and you have no helper.'" (Sahih
The moral effect of this disastrous battle was such
as to encourage some neighboring nomad tribes to make forays upon the Medinte territories, but most of these were repelled.
Mutiny as Charter members cause Dissent:
The Jews also were not slow to involve themselves in troubling the Prophet
and his followers. They tried to create disaffection among his people and slandered him and his adherents. They mispronounced
the words of the Qur'an so as to give them an offensive meaning. They also caused their poets, who were superior in culture
and intelligence, to use their influence to sow sedition among the Muslims. One of their distinguished poets, called Ka'b,
of the Bani An-Nadir, spared no efforts in publicly deploring the ill success of the idolaters after their defect at Badr.
his satires against the Prophet and his disciples, and his elegies on the Makkans who had fallen at Badr, Ka'b succeeded in
exciting the Quraish to that frenzy of vengeance which broke out at Uhud. He then returned to Madina, where he continued to
attack the Prophet and the Muslims, men and women, in terms of the most obscene character. Though he belonged to the tribe
of Bani An Nadir, which had entered into the compact with the Muslims and pledged itself both for the internal and external
safety of the State, he openly directed his acts against the commonwealth of which he was a member.
Another Jew, Sallam
by name, of the same tribe, behaved equally fiercely and bitterly against the Muslims. He lived with a party of his tribe
at Khaibar, a village five days' journey northwest of Madina. He made every effort to excite the neighboring Arab tribes against
the Muslims. The Muslim commonwealth with the object of securing safety among the community, passed a sentence of outlawry
upon Ka'b and Sallam.
The members of another Jewish tribe, namely Bani Qainuqa', were sentenced to expulsion from the
Medinite territory for having openly and knowingly infringed the terms of the compact. It was necessary to put an end to their
hostile actions of the sake of maintaining peace and security. The Prophet had to go to their headquarters, where he required
them to enter definitively into the Muslim commonwealth by embracing Islam or to leave Madina. To this they replied in the
most offensive terms: "You have had a quarrel with men ignorant of the art of war. If you are desirous of having any dealings
with us, we shall show you that we are men." They then shut themselves up in their fortress and set the Prophet and his authority
at defiance. The Muslims decided to reduce them and laid siege to their fortress without loss of time. After fifteen days
they surrendered. Though the Muslims at first intended to inflict some severe punishment on them, they contented themselves
by banishing the Bani Qainuqa'.
The Bani An-Nadir had now behaved in the same way as Bani Qainuqa'. The had likewise,
knowingly and publicly, disregarded the terms of the Charter. The Prophet sent them a message similar to that which was sent
to their brethren, the Qainuqa'. Then, relying on the assistance of the Hypocrites' party, returned for a defiant reply. After
a siege of fifteen days, they sued for terms. The Muslims renewed their previous offer, and the Jews of An Nadir chose to
exit Madina. They were allowed to take with them all their movable property, with the exception of their arms. Before leaving
Madina, they destroyed all their dwellings in immovable property and arms which they could not carry away with them were distributed
by the Prophet with the consent of the Ansar and the Emigrants. A principle was henceforth adopted that any acquisition not
made in actual warfare should belong to that state and that its disposal should be left to the discretion of the ruling authorities.
Surah 86.At-Tariq (The Morning Star), verse 8
(Some part is due) to the indigent Muhajirs, those who were expelled from their homes and their
property, while seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure, and aiding Allah and His Messenger: such are indeed the
of the Bani An-Nadir took place in the fourth year of the hijrah. The remaining portion of this year and the early part of
the next were passed in repressing the hostile attempts of the nomadic tribes against the Muslims and inflicting punishment
for various murderous forays on the Medinite territories. Of this nature was the expedition against the Christian Arabs of
Dumat Al Jandal (a place about seven days' journey to the south of Damascus), who had stopped the Medinites traffic with Syria
and even threatened a raid upon Madina. These marauders, however, fled on the approach of the Muslims, and the Prophet returned
to Madina after concluding a treaty with a neighboring chief, to whom he granted permission of pasturage in the Medinite territories.
Army (headed by Abu Sufyan) march towards Madina:
In the same year, the enemies of Islam made every possible attempt
to stir up the tribes against the Muslims. The Jews also took an active, if hidden, part in those intrigues. An army of ten
thousand well-equipped men, marched towards Madina under the command of Abu Sufyan. They encamped near Mount Uhud, a few miles
from the city. The Muslims could gather only an army of three thousand men. Seeing their inferiority in numbers on the one
hand, and the turbulence of the Hypocrites within the town on the other, they preferred to remain on the defensive. They dug
a deep moat round the unprotected quarters of Madina and encamped outside the city with a trench in front of them. They relied
upon their allies, the Quaraiza for the safety of the other side, who possessed several fortresses at a short distance towards
the south. The Quraiza were bound by the compact to assist the Muslims against any raiders. These Jews, however, were
induced by the idolaters to violate their pledge and to join the Quraish. As these Jews were acquainted with the Hypocrites
within the walls of the city, who were waiting for an opportunity to play their part, the situation of the Muslims was most
The siege had already lasted for twenty days. The enemy made great efforts to cross the trench, but every
attempt was fiercely repulsed by the small Muslim force. Disunion was now rife in the midst of the besieging army. Their horses
were perishing fast, and provisions were diminishing by the day. During the night, a storm of wind and rain caused their tents
to be overthrown and their lights extinguished. Abu Sufyan and the majority of his army fled, and the rest took refuge with
the Quraiza. The Muslims, though they were satisfied with the failure of their enemies, could not help thinking that the victory
was unsatisfactory so long as the Quraiza, who had violated their sworn pledge, remained so near. The Jews might at any time
surprise Madina from their side. The Muslims felt it their duty to demand an explanation of the violation of the pledge. This
was utterly refused. Consequently, the Jews were besieged and compelled to surrender at discretion. They only asked that
their punishment should be left to the judgment of Sa'd Ibn Mu'adh, the prince of the tribe of Aws. This chief, who was a
fierce soldier, had been wounded in the attack, and, indeed, died of his wounds the following day. Infuriated by the treacherous
conduct of the Bani Quraiza, he gave judgment that the fighting men should be put to death and that the women and children
should become the slaves of the Muslims. The sentence was then implemented.
The Prophet protects the Christians
It was about this time that the Prophet granted to the monks of the Monastry of St. Catherine, near
Mount Sinai, his liberal charter by which they secured for the Christians noble and generous privileges and immunities. He
undertook himself and enjoined his followers, to protect the Christians, to defend their churches and the residences of their
priests and to guard them from all injuries. They were not to be unfairly taxed; no bishop was to be driven out of his diocese;
nor Christian was to be forced to reject his religion; no monk was to be expelled from his Monastry; no pilgrim was to be
stopped from his pilgrimage; nor were the Christian churches to be pulled down for the sake of building mosques or houses
for the Muslims. Christian women married to Muslims were to enjoy their own religion and not to be subjected to compulsion
or annoyance of any kind. If the Christians should stand in need of assistance for the repair of their churches or monasteries,
or any other matter pertaining to their religion, the Muslims were to assist them. This was not to be considered as supporting
their religion, but as simply rendering them assistance in special circumstances. Should the Muslims be engaged in hostilities
with outside Christians, no Christian resident among the Muslims should be treated with contempt on account of his creed.
The Prophet declared that any Muslim violating any clause of the charter should be regarded as a transgressor of Allah's commandments, a violator of His testament and neglectful of
The Treaty of Hudaibiya:
Six years had already elapsed since the Prophet and his Makkan followers
had fled from their birthplace. Their hearts began to yearn for their homes and for their Sacred House, the Ka'ba. As the
season of the pilgrimage approached, the Prophet announced his intention to visit the holy city, and numerous voices of his
disciples responded to the call. Preparations were soon made for the journey to Makka. The Prophet, accompanied by seven or
eight hundred Muslims, Emigrants and Ansars, all totally unarmed, set out on the pilgrimage. The Quraish, who were still full
of animosity towards the Muslims, gathered a large army to prevent them from entering Makka and maltreated the envoy whom
the Prophet had sent to ask permission to visit the holy places. After much difficulty, a treaty was concluded by which it
was agreed that all hostilities should cease for ten years; that anyone coming from the Quraish to the Prophet without the
permission of the guardian or chief should be given back to the idolaters; that any Muslim persons going over to the Makkans
should be surrendered; that any tribe desirous of entering into alliance, either with the Quraish or with the Muslims, should
be at liberty to do so without disputes; that the Muslims should go back to Madina on the present occasion and stop advancing
further; that they should be permitted in the following year to visit Makka and to remain there for three days with the arms
they used on journeys, namely, their scimitars in sheaths.
The Treaty of Hudaibiya thus ended, the Prophet returned
with his people to Madina.
Prophet Mohammed dispatches envoys:
Around this time it was revealed to the Prophet that his mission should be universal. He dispatched
several envoys to invite the neighboring sovereigns to Islam. The embassy to the king of Persia, Chosroes Parvis, was received
with disdain and contumely. He was haughtily amazed at the boldness of the Makka fugitive in addressing him on terms of equality.
He was so enraged that he tore up into pieces the Prophet's letter of invitation to Islam and dismissed the envoy from his
presence with great contempt. When the Prophet received information on this treatment, he calmly observed: "Thus will the
Empire of Chosroes be torn to pieces."
Heraclius submits to Almighty God and embraces Islam:
to Heraclius, the Emperor of the Romans, was received much more politely and reverentially. He treated the ambassador with
great respect and sent the Prophet a gracious reply to his message.
Another envoy was sent to an Arab prince of the
Ghassanite tribe, a Christian feudatory of Heraclius. This prince, instead of receiving the envoy with any respect, cruelly
murdered him. This act caused great consternation among the Muslims, who considered it as an outrage of international obligations. Narrated
Abdullah Ibn Abbas: Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb informed me that Heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying
a caravan from Quraish. They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and Jordan) at the time when
Allah's Messenger had a truce with Abu Sufyan and Quraish infidels.
So Abu Sufyan and his companions went to Heraclius at Ilya (Jerusalem). Heraclius called them in the court
and he had all the senior Roman dignitaries around him. He called for his translator who, translating Heraclius's question,
said to them:"Who among you is closely related to that man who claims to be a Prophet?" Abu Sufyan replied:"I am the nearest relative to him (amongst the group)."
Heraclius said: "Bring him (Abu Sufyan)
close to me and make his companions stand behind him."Abu Sufyan added:"Heraclius told his translator
to tell my companions that he wanted to put some questions to me regarding that man (The Prophet) and if I told a lie they
(my companions) should contradict me. By Allah ! Had I not been afraid of my companions labeling me
a liar, I would have not have spoken the truth about the Prophet." Abu Sufyan's narration continues:"The first
question he asked me about him was; What is his family status among you?" "I replied:"He belongs to a good noble
family amongst us." Heraclius further asked: "Has anybody among you ever claimed the same (to be a Prophet)
before him?" I replied:"No."He said:"Was anybody amongst his ancestors a king?"I
replied:"No." Heraclius asked: "Do the nobles or the poor follow him?"I replied: "It is the
poor who follow him." He said:"Are his followers increasing or decreasing (day by day)?" I replied: "They
are increasing." He then asked: "Does anybody amongst those who embrace his religion become displeased and renounce
the religion afterwards?"I replied:"No."Heraclius said:"Have you ever accused
him of telling lies before his claim (to be a Prophet)?"I replied: "No."Hereaclius said: "Does
he break his promises?"I replied:"No". We are at truce with him but we do not know what he will
do in it." I could not find opportunity to say anything against him except that.Heraclius asked:"Have
you ever had a war with him?"I replied:"Yes."Then he said:"What was the outcome of
the battles?" I replied: "Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we."Heraclius said: "What does he
order you to do?"
I said:"He tells us to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and
to renounce all that our ancestors had said. He orders us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste and to keep good relations
with our kith and kin."
Heraclius asked the translator to convey to me the following: "I asked
you about his family and your reply was that he belonged to a very noble family. In fact, all the Messengers come from noble
families among their respective peoples. I questioned you whether anybody else among you claimed such a thing; your reply
was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following the previous
man's statement. Then I asked you whether anyone of his ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative, and if it had
been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom. I further asked whether
he was ever accused of telling lies before he said what he said and your reply was in the negative. So I wondered how
a person who does not tell a lie about others could ever tell a lie about Allah . I then asked you whether the rich people followed him or
the poor. You replied that it was the poor who followed him. And, in fact, all the Messengers have been followed by this very
class of people. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing,
and, in fact, this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody,
who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and discarded his religion. You reply was in the negative, and, in fact
this is (the sign of) true faith, when its delight enters the hearts and mixes with them completely. I asked you whether he
had ever betrayed. You replied in the negative, and likewise the Messengers never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered
you to do. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and
forbade you to worship idols, and ordered you to pray, to speak the truth and to be chaste. If what you have said is true,
he will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet and I knew it (from the scriptures) that he was going to appear but
I did not know that he would be from you, and if I could reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him and if I
were with him, I would certainly wash his feet."
Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allah's Messenger which had been delivered by Dihya to the Governor
of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. The contents of the letter were as follows:"In the name of Allah , the Beneficent, the Merciful. (This letter is) from Mohammed
, the slave of Allah and His Messenger to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace
be upon him who follows the right path. Furthermore, I invite you to Islam, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and
Allah will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation
of Islam, you will be committing a sin by misguiding your subjects. And I recite to you Allah's Statement: SAY (O Mohammed ): 'O People of the Scripture (Jews & Christians): Come to
a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah , and that we associate no partners with Him and that none
of us shall take others as lords besides Allah .' Then, if they turn away, say: 'Bear witness that
we are Muslims.' "
Abu Sufyan then added: When Heraclius had finished his speech and had read the letter,
there was a great hue and cry in the Royal Court. So we turned out of the court. I told my companions that the question of
Ibn-Abi-Kabsha (the Prophet Mohammed ) had become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine)
was afraid of him. Then I started to become sure that he (the Prophet) would be the conqueror in the near future till I embraced
Islam (Allah guided me to it).
The sub narrator
added that Ibn An-Natur was the Governor of Ilya (Jerusalem) and Heraclius was the head of the Christians of Sham.Ibn
An-Natur narrated that once while Heraclius was visiting Ilya (Jerusalem), he got up in the morning with a sad mood. Some
of his priests asked him why he as in that mood. Hreaclius was a foreteller and an astrologer. He replied: "At night when
I looked at the stars, I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had appeared (became the conqueror). Who are
they who practice circumcision?" The people replied: "Except the Jews, nobody practices circumcision, so you should not be
afraid of them (Jews). Just Issue orders to kill every Jew present in the country.'
While they were discussing
it, a messenger sent by the king of Ghassan to convey the news of Allah's Messenger to Heraclius was brought in. Having heard the news,
he (Heraclius) ordered the people to go and see whether the messenger of Ghassan was circumcised. The people, after seeing
him, told Heraclius that he was circumcised. Heraclius then asked him about the Arabs. The messenger replied: "Arabs also
After hearing that Heraclius remarked that sovereignty of the Arabs had appeared.
Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as good as Heraclius in knowledge. Heraclius then left for Homs
(a town in Syria) and stayed there till he received the reply of his letter from his friend, who agreed with him in his opinion
about the emergence of the Prophet and the fact that he was a Prophet. On that, Heraclius invited all the heads of the Byzantines
to assemble in his palace at Homs. When they assembled, he ordered that all the doors of his palace be closed. Then he came
out and said: "O Byzantines! If success is your desire and if you seek right guidance and want your empire to remain, then
give a pledge of allegiance to this Prophet (embrace Islam)." (on hearing the views of Heraclius) the people ran towards the
gates of the palace like onagers but found the doors closed. Heraclius realised their hatred towards Islam and when he lost
the hope of their embracing Islam, he ordered that they should be brought back in audience. (When they returned) he said:
"What was already said was just to test the strength
of your conviction and I have seen it." The people prostrated before him and became pleased with him, and this was the end
of Heraclius's story (in connection with his faith).
Attack from the Jews of Khaibar
In the same year the Jews of Khaibar, a strongly fortified territory at a distance of four days' journey
from Madina, showed implacable hatred towards the Muslims. United by alliance with the tribe of Ghatfan, as well as with other
cognate tribes, the Jews of Khaibar made serious attempts to form a coalition against the Muslims. The Prophet and his adherents
were apprised of this movement and immediate measures were taken in order to repress any new attack upon Madina. An expedition
of fourteen hundred men was soon prepared to march against Khaibar. The allies of the Jews left them to face the war with
the Muslims all alone. The Jews firmly resisted the attacks of the Muslims, but eventually all their fortresses had to be
surrendered, one after the other to their enemies. They prayed for forgiveness, which was accorded to them on certain conditions.
Their lands and immovable property were secured to them, together with the free practice of their religion. After subduing
Khaibar, the Muslims returned to Madina in safety. Allah's Messenger and the Muslims perform Hajj:
the end of the year, it being the seventh year of the hijrah, the Prophet and his adherents availed themselves of their armistice
with the Quraish to visit the holy Ka'ba. The Prophet, accompanied by two hundred Muslims, went to Makka to perform the rites
of pilgrimage. On this occasion the Quraish evacuated the city during the three days which the ceremonies lasted.
William Muir, in his book, Life of Mohammed Vol. III comments on the incident as follows:
It was surely a strange sight, which at this time presented itself at the
vale of Makka, a sight unique in the history of the world. The ancient city is for three days evacuated by all its inhabitants,
high and low, every house deserted, and as they retire, the exiled converts, many years banished from their birth-place, approach
in a great body accompanied by their allies, revisit the empty homes of their childhood, and within the short allotted space,
fulfil the rites of pilgrimage. The outside inhabitants, climbing the heights around take refuge under tents or other shelter
among the hills and glens; and clustering on the overhanging peak of Abu Qubeis, thence watch the movements of the visitors
beneath, as with the Prophet at their head, they make the circuit of the Ka'ba and rapid procession between Essafa and Marwah,
and anxiously scan every figure, if perchance they may recognize among the worshippers some long lost friend or relative.
It was a scene rendered only by the throes, which gave birth to Islam.
In accordance with the terms of the treaty,
the Muslims left Makka at the end of three day's visit. This peaceful visit was followed by important conversions among the
Quraish. Khalid Ibn Al-Walid, known as the Sword of Allah , who, before this, had been a bitter enemy of Islam and who
commanded the Quraish cavalry at Uhud; and Amr Ibn Al' As, another important character and warrior, adopted the new faith.
for the Murder of the Muslim Envoy:
When the Prophet and his followers returned to Madina, they arranged in expedition
to exact retribution from the Ghassanite prince who had killed the Muslim envoy. A force of three thousand men, under the
Prophet's adopted son Zaid, was sent to take reparation from the offending tribe.
Khalid Ibn Al-Walid was one
of the generals chosen for the expedition. When they reached the neighborhood of Muta, a village to the southeast of the
Dead Sea, they met with an overwhelming force of Arabs and Romans who were assembled to oppose them. The Muslims, however,
resolved resolutely to push forward. Their courage was of no avail and they suffered great losses. In this battle Zaid and
Ja'far, a cousin of the Prophet, and several other notables were killed. Khalid Ibn Al-Walid, by a series of maneuvers, succeeded
in drawing off the army and conducting it without further loses to Madina. A month later, however, Amr Ibn Al-'As marched
unopposed through the lands of the hostile tribes, received their submission, and restored the prestige of Islam on the Syrian
Quraish violate terms of Hudaibiya, Prophets Army march against Idolators:
About the end of
the seventh year of the hijrah, the Quraish and their allies, the Bani Bakr, violated the terms of the peace concluded at
Hudaibiya by attacking the Bani Khuzaah, who were in alliance with the Muslims. The Bani Khuzzah appealed to the Prophet for
help and protection. The Prophet determined to make a stop to the reign of injustice and oppression, which had lasted so long
at Makka. He immediately gathered ten thousand men to march against the idolaters and set out on January, 630.
eight days the Muslims army halted, and alighted at Marr Az-Zahran, a day's journey from Makka. On the night of their arrival,
Abu Sufyan, who was delegated by the Quraish to ask the Prophet to abandon his project, presented himself and besought an
interview. In the morning it was granted. "Has the time not come, O Abu Sufyan," said the Prophet, "for you to acknowledge
that there is no deity save Allah and that I am His Messenger?" Abu Sufyan, after hesitating
for awhile, pronounced the prescribed formula of belief and adopted Islam. He was then sent back to prepare the city for the
With the exception of a slight resistance by certain clans headed by Ikrima and Safwan, in which
many Muslims were killed, the Prophet entered Makka almost unopposed. The city which had treated him so cruelly, driven him
and his faithful band for refuge among strangers, the city which had sworn his life and the lives of his devoted adherents,
now lay at his mercy. His old persecutors were now completely at his feet. The Prophet entered Makka on his favourite camel
Al-Kaswa, having Usama Ibn Zaid sitting behind him. On his way he recited Surah Al Fath (Victory), the first verses:
Surah 48.Al-Fath (Victory), verse 1, 2 and 3
Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory: That Allah may forgive thee thy faults
of the past and those to follow; fulfil His favour to thee; and guide thee on the Straight Way; And that Allah may help
thee with powerful help.
orders the destruction of the Idols:
The Muslim army entered the city unpretentiously and peacefully. No house was robbed, no man
or woman was insulted. The Prophet granted a general amnesty to the entire population of Makka. Only four criminals, whom
justice condemned, were proscribed. He did however, order the destruction of all idols and pagan images of worship, upon which
three hundred and fifty idols which were in the Sacred House of Ka'ba were thrown down. The Prophet himself destroyed a wooden
pigeon hung from the roof and regarded as one of the deities of the Quraish. During the downfall of the images and idols he
was heard to cry aloud: "Allah is great. Truth has come and falsehood has vanished; verily
falsehood is fleeting." The old idolaters observed thoughtfully the destruction of their gods, which were utterly powerless.
After the Prophet had abolished these pagan idols and every pagan rite, he delivered a sermon to the assembled people. He
dwelt upon the natural brotherhood of man in the words of the Qur'an:
Surah 49.Al-Hujraat (The Private Apartments), verse 13
O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and
made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured
of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted
(with all things).
Narrated Hisham's father:When Allah's Messenger set out (towards Makka) during the year of the Conquest
(of Makka) and this news reached (the infidels of Quraish), Abu Sufyan, Hakim Ibn Hizam and Budail Ibn Waraqa came out to
gather information about Allah's Messenger. They proceeded on their way till they reached a
place called Marr-az-Zahran (which is near Makka). Behold! There they saw many fires as if they were the fires of Arafat."
Budail Ibn Waraqa' said: "Banu' Amr are less in number than that." Some of the guards of Allah's Messenger saw them and took them over, caught them, and brought
them to Allah's Messenger. Abu Sufyan embraced Islam.
the Prophet proceeded, he said to Al' Abbas: "Keep Abu Sufyan standing at the top of the mountain so that he would look at
the Muslims. So Al- Abbas kept him standing (at that place) and the tribes with the Prophet started passing in front of Abu
Sufyan in military batches. A batch passed in front of Abu Sufyan and said: "O 'Abbas who are these?" 'Abbas said: "They are
Banu Ghaifar." Abu Sufyan said: "I have got nothing to do with Ghifar." Then a batch of the tribe of Juhaina passed by and
he said similarly as above. Then a batch of the tribe of Sa'd Ibn Huzaim passed by and he said similarly as above. Then came
a batch, the like of which Abu Sufyan had not seen. He said: "Who are these?" Abbas said: "They are the Ansar headed by Sa'd
Ibn 'Ubada, the one holding the flag." Sa'd Ibn 'Ubada said: "O Abu Sufyan! Today is the day of a great battle and today (what
is prohibited in )the Ka'ba will be permissible." Abu Sufyan said, "O Abbas! How excellent the day of destruction is!" Then
came another batch of warriors which was the smallest of all the batches, and in it there was Allah's Messenger and his companions, and the flag of the Prophet
was carried by Az-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam. When Allah's Messenger passed by Abu Sufyan, the latter said to the Prophet:
"Do you know what Sa'd Ibn Ubada said?" The Prophet said: "What did he say?" Abu Sufyan said: "He said so-and-so." The Prophet
said: "Sa'd told a lie, but today Allah will give superiority to the Ka'ba and today the Ka'ba will
be covered with a cloth covering." Allah's Messenger ordered that his flag be fixed at Al-Hajun.
Urwa: Nafi' Ibn Jubair Ibn Mut'im said:"I heard Al-Abbas saying to Az-Zubair Ibn Al- Awwam, 'O Abu Abdullah! Did
Allah's Messenger order you to fix the flag here?' "Allah's Messenger ordered Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to enter Makka from
its upper part from Kadaa' while the Prophet himself entered from Kudaa. Two men from the cavalry of Khalid Ibn Al-Walid named
Hubaish Ibn Al Ashar and Kurz Ibn Jabir Al-Fihri were martyred on that day. (Sahih Al Bukhari)
Now great multitudes came to adopt Islam and take the
oath of allegiance to the Prophet. For this purpose an assembly was held at As-Safa Mountain. Umar, acting as the Prophet's
deputy administered the oath, whereby the people bound themselves not to adore any deity but Allah to obey the Prophet to abstain from theft, adultery, infanticide,
lying and backbiting. Thus was fulfilled the prophecy embodied in the Surah Al Fath in the Quran.
During his stay at
Makka, the Prophet dispatched his principal disciples in every direction to preach Islam among the wild tribes of the desert
and call them to the true religion of Allah . He sent small detachments of his troops into the suburbs
who destroyed the temples of Al-Uzza, Suwaa, and Manat, the three famous idols in the temples of the neighboring tribes. The
Prophet gave strict orders that these expeditions should be carried out in a peaceable manner. These injunctions were obeyed
in all cases, with one exception. The troops under Khalid Ibn Al-Walid, the fierce newly-converted warrior, killed a few of
the Bani Jazima. When the news of this wanton bloodshed reached the Prophet, he was deeply grieved and exclaimed: "Oh, my
Lord, I am innocent of what Khalid has done." He dispatched a large sum of money for the widows and orphans of the slain and
severely rebuked Khalid.
At this time the tribes of Hawazin and Thakif showed unwillingness to render obedience to
the Muslims without resistance. They formed a league with the intention of attacking the Prophet, but he was vigilant enough
to frustrate their plan. A big battle was fought with this new enemy of Islam near Hunain, a deep and narrow defile nine miles
northeast of Makka. The idolaters were utterly defeated. One body of the enemy, consisting chiefly of the Thakif tribe, took
refuge in their fortified city of Ta'if, which eight or nine years before had dismissed the Prophet from within its walls
with injuries and insults. The remainder of the defeated force, consisting principally of the Hawazin, sought at a camp in
the valley of Autas. This camp was raided by the Muslim troops. The families of the Hawazin, their flocks and herds with all
their other effects, were captured by the troops of the Prophet. Ta'if was then besieged for a few days only, after which
the Prophet raised the siege, well knowing that the people of Ta'if would soon be forced by circumstances to submit without
bloodshed. Returning to his camp where the prisoners of Hawazin were left safely, the Prophet found a deputation from this
hostile tribe who begged him to set free their families. The Prophet replied that he was willing to give back his own share
of those captives and that of the children of Abdul Muttalib, but that he could not force his followers to abandon the fruits
of their victory. The disciples followed the generous example of their teacher. The hearts of several members of the Thakir
tribe were so influenced by this that they offered their allegiance and soon became earnest Muslims. The Prophet now returned
to Madina fully satisfied with the achievements of his mission. The ninth year of the hijrah is known as the
Year of Embassies, as being the year in which the various tribes of Arabia submitted to the claim of the Prophet and sent
embassies to render homage to him.
These tribes had been awaiting the issue of the war between Mohammed and the Quraish; but as soon as the tribe - the principal of the
whole nation and the descendants of Ishmael, whose prerogatives none offered to dispute - had submitted, they were satisfied
that it was not in their power to oppose Mohammed . Hence their embassies flocked into Madina to make their submission
to him. The conquest of Makka decided the fate of idolatry in Arabia. Now deputations began to arrive from all sides to render
the adherence to Islam of various tribes. Among the rest, five princes of the tribe of Himyar professed Islam and sent ambassadors
to notify Mohammed of the same. These were the princes of Yemen, Mahra, Oman, and Yamama.
idolaters of Ta'if, the very people who had driven the Messenger of Islam from their midst with violence and contempt, now
sent a deputation to pray forgiveness and ask to be numbered among his followers. They begged, however, for temporary preservation
of their idols. As a last appeal they begged for one month of grace only. But even this was not conceded. The Prophet said
Islam and the idols could not exist together. They then begged for exemption from the daily prayers. The Prophet replied that
without devotion, religion would be nothing. At last they submitted to all that was required of them. They, however, asked
to be exempted from destroying the idols with their own hands. This was granted. The Prophet selected Abu Sufyan and Mughira
to destroy the idols of Ta'if, the chief of which was the notorious idol of Al-Lat. This was carried out amidst cries of despair
and grief from the women of Ta'if.
The conversion of this tribe of Ta'if is worthy of notice. This tribe, which hither
to had proved hostile to the new faith, was noted among the Arabs for its idolatrous priesthood. A small detachment under
Ali was sent to reduce them to obedience and to destroy their idols. The prince of the tribe was 'Adi, the son of the famous
Hatim, whose generosity was spoken of all over Arabia. On the approach of the Muslim force, Adi fled to Syria, leaving his
sister with his principal clansmen, to fall into the hands of the Muslims. These were conducted by Ali with every sign of
respect and sympathy to Madina. When the daughter of Hatim came before the Prophet, she addressed him in the following words:
"Messenger of Allah , my father is dead; my brother, my only relation fled into
the mountains on the approach of the Muslims. I cannot ransom myself; I count on your generosity for my deliverance. My father
was an illustrious man, the prince of his tribe, a man who ransomed prisoners, protected the honor of women, fed the poor,
cothe afflicted, and was deaf to no appeal." The Prophet replied: "Your father had the virtues of a true Muslim; if it were
permitted to invoke the mercy of Allah on any whose life was passed in idolatry, I would pray to
Allah for mercy for the soul of Hatim." Then, addressing the Muslims
around him, he said: "the daughter of Hatim is free, her father was a generous and humane man; Allah loves and rewards the merciful." With the daughter of Hatim,
all her people were set at liberty. She proceeded to Syria and related to her brother the generosity of Mohammed . 'Adi, touched by gratitude, hastened to Madina, where he was kindly
received by the Prophet. He professed Islam and returned to his people and persuaded them to abandon idolatry. They all submitted
and became devoted Muslims.
Hitherto no prohibition had been enforced against idolaters entering the Holy Ka'ba,
or performing their abominable rites within the sacred precincts. Towards the end of the ninth year of the hijrah, during
the month of pilgrimage 'Ali was delegated by the Prophet to read a proclamation that ran as follows: "No idolater shall after
this year perform the pilgrimage; no one shall make the circuit of the Ka'ba naked (such a disgraceful custom was practiced
by the pagan Arabs); and treaty with the Prophet shall continue in force but four months are allowed to every man to return
to his territories; after that there will be no obligation on the Prophet, except towards those with whom treaties have been
The vast multitude who had listened to the above declaration returned to their homes, and before the following
year was over the majority of them were Muslims.
During the tenth year of the hijrah, as in the preceding one, numerous
embassies continued to pour into Madina from all parts of Arabia, to testify to the allegiance of their chiefs and their tribes.
Teachers were sent by the Prophet into the different provinces to teach the new converts the principles and precepts of Islam.
These teachers were invariably given the following injunctions when they were about to depart on their mission: "Deal gently
with the people, and be not harsh; cheer them, and do not look down upon them with contempt. You will meet with many believers
in the Holy Scriptures, who will ask you: 'What is the key to heaven?' Answer them it (the key to heaven) is to bear witness
to the divine truth and to do good."
Thus, the mission of the Prophet Mohammed was now accomplished; the whole work was achieved in his lifetime.
Idolatry with its nameless abominations was entirely destroyed. The people who were sunk in superstition, cruelty, and vice
in regions where spiritual life was utterly unknown were now united in one bond of faith, hope and charity. The tribes which
had been from time immemorial engaged in perpetual wars were now united together by the ties of brotherhood, love, and harmony.
Henceforth, their aims were not confined to this earth alone; but there was something beyond the grave - much higher, purer,
and diviner - calling them to the practice of charity, goodness, justice, and universal love. They could now perceive that
Allah was not that which they had carved out of wood or stone, but
the Almighty Loving, Merciful, the Creator of the Universe.
Prophet Mohammed's last Sermon, mount Arafat:
On the return of the sacred month of pilgrimage, the Prophet, under the presentiment of his
approaching end, determined to make a farewell pilgrimage to Makka. In February 632, he left Madina with a very considerable
concourse of Muslims. It is stated that from ninety thousand to one hundred and forty thousand people accompanied the Prophet.
Before completing all rites of the pilgrimage, he addressed the assembled multitude from the top of Mount Arafat in the following
"O people! Listen to my words, for I know not whether another year will be vouchsafed to me after this year
to find myself among you. Your lives and property are sacred and inviolable among one another until you appear before the
Lord, as this day and this month are sacred for all; and remember, you will have to appear before your Lord Who will demand
from you an account for all your actions. O people, you have rights over your wives, and your wives have a right over you.
Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their people lawful unto you by the words of
Allah . And your slaves, see that you feed them with such food as
you eat yourselves, and clothe them with the stuff you wear, and if they commit a fault which you are not inclined to forgive,
then part with them; for they are the servants of the Lord and are not to be harshly treated. O people, listen to my words
and understand them. Know that all Muslims are brothers. You are one brotherhood; but no man shall take ought from his brother,
unless by his free consent. Keep yourselves from injustice. Let him who is present tell this to him who is absent. It maybe
that he who is told this afterward may remember better than he who has now heard it.
The Prophet concluded his sermon
by exclaiming: "O Lord, I have fulfilled my message and accomplished my work." The assembled multitude, all in one voice,
cried: "Yea, verily you have." The Prophet again exclaimed: "O Lord, I beseech You, bear witness to it."
returns to Madina:
Having rigorously performed all the ceremonies of the pilgrimage, that his example might be
followed by all Muslims for all succeeding ages, the Prophet returned with his followers to Madina.
The eleventh year
of the hijrah, being the last year of Mohammed's life, was spent at Madina. There he settled the organization of the
provincial and tribal communities which had adopted Islam and become the component parts of the Muslims federation. More officers
had to be deputed to the interior provinces for the purpose of teaching their inhabitants the precepts of the religion, administering
justice, and collecting Zakat. Muadh Ibn Jabal was sent to Yemen. On his departure to that distant province the Prophet enjoined
him to use his own discretion in the event of his being unable to find express authority in the Quran. Ali was deputed to
Yamama in the southeast of the peninsula. To him the Prophet said: "Never decide between any two parties who come to you for
justice unless you first hear both of them."
Murders and false claims of Prophethood arise:
A force was
being prepared under Usama, Ibn Zaid, whose father was killed at Muta, against the Byzantines, to exact the long-delayed reparation
for the murder of the envoy to Syria. However, the news of the Prophet's sickness and failing health caused that expedition
to be stopped. This news was soon noised abroad and produced disorder in some districts. Three pretenders had arisen who gave
themselves out as prophets and tried by all kinds of imposture to win over their tribes. The most dangerous of these pretenders
was known as Al-Aswad. He was a chief of Yemen and a conjurer. He soon succeeded in gaining over his tribesmen and, with the
help, reduced to subjection many of the neighboring towns. He killed Shahr, whom the Prophet had appointed as Governor of
Sana in the place of his father Bazan, who had just died. Bazan had been the viceroy of Yemen under Chosroes of Persia; after
he had adopted Islam he was allowed by the Prophet to remain as Governor of Yemen. He was able to convert to Islam all the
Persian colony in that province. Al-Aswad, the conjurer, had now killed Shahr, but soon after he was massacred by the Persians
The other two pretenders, Tulayha and Haroun by name, were not suppressed until after the death of the Prophet,
during the reign of Abu Bakr. Haroun, better known as Mussaylamah, addressed to the Prophet a letter which ran as follows:
"From Mussaylamah the Prophet of Allah , to Mohammed the Prophet of Allah . Peace be to you. I am your partner. Let the exercise of authority
be divided between us. Half the earth will be mine, and half will belong to your Quraish. But the Quraish are too greedy to
be satisfied with a just division." To this letter the Prophet replied as follows: "From Mohammed the Messenger of Allah to Mussaylamah the liar. Peace be to those who follow the
right path. The earth belongs to Allah . It is He Who makes the reign whomsoever He pleases. Only
those will prosper who fear the Lord."
Prophet Mohammed's last days:
The health of the Prophet grew worse. His last days were remarkable for the calmness and serenity of his mind.
He was able, though weak and feeble, to lead the public prayers until within three days of his death. He requested that he
might be permitted to stay at 'Aisha's house close to the mosque during his illness, an arrangement to which his other wives
assented. As long as his strength lasted, he took part in the public prayers. The last time he appeared in the mosque he addressed
the congregation, after the usual prayers were over, in the following words: "O Muslims, if I have wronged anyone of you,
here I am to answer for it; if I owe anything to anyone, all I may happen to possess belongs to you." A man in the crowd rose
and claimed three Dhirhams which he had given to a poor man at the request of the Prophet. They were immediately paid back
with these words: "Better to blush in this world than in the next."
The Prophet then prayed and implored Allah's mercy for those who had fallen in the persecution of their
enemies. He recommended to all his followers the observance of religious duties and the leading of a life of peace and goodwill.
Then he spoke with emotion and with a voice still so powerful as to reach beyond the outer doors of the mosque: "By the Lord
in Whose hand lies the soul of Mohammed as to myself, no man can lay hold on me in any matter; I have not
made lawful anything excepting what Allah has made lawful; nor have I prohibited anything but that which
Allah in His Book has prohibited."
Then turning to the women
who sat close by, he exclaimed: "O Fatimah, my, daughter, and Safia, my aunt, work you both that which procure you acceptance
with the Lord, for verily I have no power to save you in any wise." He then rose and re-entered the house of Aisha.
The death of Prophet Mohammed , Peace be upon him:
After this, the Prophet never appeared at public prayers. A
few hours after he returned from the mosque, the Prophet died while laying his head on the bosom of Aischa. As soon as the
Prophet's death was announced, a crowed of people gathered at the door of the house Aischa , exclaiming " how can our messenger
be dead? Umar said: "No, he is not dead; he will be restored to us, and those are traitors to the cause of Islam who say he
is dead. If they say so let them cut in pieces.: But Abu Bakr entered the house at this moment, and after he had touched the
body of the Prophet with a demonstration of profound affection, he appears at the door and addressed the crowd with the following
speech; "O Muslims if anybody of you has been worshipping Mohammed then let me tell you that Mohammed is dead. But if you really worship Allah then know that Allah is living and will never die. Do you forgot the verse in the Quran
Surah 3.Aal-E-Imran (The Family Of 'Imran), verse 144
Mohammed is no more than a messenger: many
Were the messenger that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did
turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who
(serve Him) with gratitude.
Upon hearing this speech of abu Bakr,'Umar acknowledge this error, and the crowd was satisfied and
Al-Abbas, the Prophet uncle, presided at the preparation for the burial, and the body was duly washed and
perfumed. There was some dispute between the Quraish and the Ansars to the place of burial; however , Abu Bakr settled the
dispute by affirming that he had heard the Prophet say that a Prophet should buried at the spot where he died, a grave was
accordingly dug in the ground within the house of Aischa and under the bed on which the Prophet died. In this grave the body
was buried, and the usual rites were preformed by those who where present.
Thus ended the glorious life of that Prophet