Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a school of esoteric philosophy
in Islam, which is based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. In modern
language it might also be referred to as Islamic spirituality or Islamic mysticism.A Sufi is a
person who practices purification of heart.
Life of Sufi
The life of a Sufi is the "life of the spirit " regulated strictly in accordance with Islamic theology and traditions.
To attain this his first lesson is unshakable belief in the existence of God and unconditional surrender to His will. This
entails a strenuous life attended by rigid austerity and self-denial. He has to undergo a course of training in regular prayers
and meditation to attain the Divine Knowledge and realisation of Truth. This particular knowledge is passed on 'in secret'
by one Sufi to another having the requisite qualifications i.e. one who does not think evil does not see evil, does not hear
evil and does not speak evil. Without this Divine Knowledge, one cannot fathom the hidden mysteries of the Nature and those
of the soul. To sum up the whole object of Sufism is to attain the highest spiritual perfection.
A Sufi will be distinguishable from others on account of his detachment from his parents, children, wealth, power, position
and comforts. His ignorance vanishes in the effulgence of the 'Divine Light' of the most High, the Lord of the entire Universe.
In such an ecstatically devotion there is neither pain nor sorrow for him as he is overwhelmingly dedicated to the will of
the Almighty God. Thus a Sufi saint is the Spiritual King, far above all temporal kings, disguised in the patched robes of
a humble dervish.
Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chisty (May peace of God be upon his soul) was one of the greatest Sufi saints the world has ever
known. His spiritual influence and benedictions have been, and are still a perpetually source of inspiration courage and guidance
to the afflicted humanity, irrespective of caste creed or religion.
The Sufis are classified into four prominent silsilas (categories) or lines, viz. Qadaria, Chishtia Suhraward and Naqshbandia.
Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty belonged to the second 'silsila'. There is no fundamental difference between these silsilas
except in matters of minor details. They are all within the framework of the Islamic law as laid down by the Holy Quran and
expounded by Hadith but the rituals applied for obtaining the communion or 'raza' of God are different just like the modern
Universities where student take different courses for obtaining a particular class of degree. The Chishtia 'silsila' does
not enjoin any indifferent belief from that of the other Hanafi Sunni Mussalmans. Their belief is based upon the Holy Quran.
A study of the lives of Chishty saints, including Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin and his spiritual preceptor Hazrat Khwaja Usman
Harooni reveals that they preached and held purely Quranic beliefs. According to Shariat, every Chishty saint has to follow
the Quranic laws strictly.
The Sufi 'silsilas' however, are not sects. They grew up because people went to Sheikhs or 'murshids' (religious masters)
for spiritual guidance and training who invested those of their disciples whom they regarded as spiritually fit to cater for
the spiritual and moral needs of others Traditions, no doubt, grew up differently in different 'silsilas'. What is common
between the various Sufi 'silsilas' is confined to few spiritual practices like auraad (verses from Quran) 'sama' (audition)
certain festivals, institutions like veneration of the shrines, the etiquette of visiting them and the devotion to certain
leading personalities of the order. One special features of the Chishtia order, which is particularly observable among the
early Chishty saints of India, is their love for all humanity. They sought to inculcate among their followers an attitude
of broad sympathy for the common man irrespective of caste, creed or nationality. They stressed more on humanitarian of caste,
creed or nationality. They stressed more on humanitarian obligations of Muslims than on any other point. And that is why Khawaja
Muinuddin Chishty attracted lakhs of people to the vast circle of his devotees in India in a very short time.
Regulation and Practices
There are certain regulations of Sufism which are called ‘Adraak’ and ‘Ehsas’ in Sufi parlance.
They are also known as ‘Arkaan Tasawwuf’ or ‘Arkaan-Baatani’ i.e. the rules and discipline for the
acquirement of the hidden wisdom or knowledge. They are divided into the "hidden wisdom" or knowledge. They are divided into
the following three categories:
(1) "Knowledge" i.e. the ‘divine Knowledge’ attainable through the rigid discipline of ‘Shariat’.
(2) "Amal" i.e. action under the above discipline with unflinching faith and devotion.
(3) "Haal" i.e. the resulting reaction from ‘Amal’ or the action.
A Sufi aspirant’s first important step to act upon the above course is to seek a religious preceptor or ‘murshid’
who should be a practical master of the said Divine Knowledge and its training experience. His preliminary lessons start with,
(i) Liturgical practices and exercises with unswerving devotion to certain Quranic verses which are pregnant with the Divine
Knowledge in order to grasp their spiritual interpretation and values.
(ii) A rigid control over his soul called ‘Nafs’which starts which renunciation and self-mortification.
Training In Sufism
When a person decided to become a mystic or Sufi, he was expected to go to a Sheikh or Murshid (master) and spend with
him as much time as was deemed necessary by the Sheikh for his spiritual development. During this period of apprenticeship
which, in most cases, lasted a lifetime the Sheikh used to instruct the disciple to perform mortification (Mujahedas) so as
to gain control over his appetitive soul, i.e. 'Nafs'. This was done by performing service like hewing of wood, drawing of
water from the wells and so many other menial services in the Khanqah (the monastery or chapel). Even Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin
Chishty himself had to pass through this hard and rigorous course of probation when he was under training for a period of
20 years with his Pir-o-Murshid (master) Hazrat Khawaja Usman Harooni. Every Sufi saint had to perform these hard services
for his 'Pir' before achieving the robe of Khilafat (succession).
Stages Of Mysticism
According to the Islamic standard of judgment, the seeker after Truth, as stated above has to pass through many stages
before he can actually feel himself in commination with the Truth being the ultimate object. The elementary condition is to
have an unshakable faith and a firm resolve in doing or not doing a thing that is termed 'niyyat' (intention) in Muslim theology
which is followed by repentance and penitence. The next stage is called "Mujaheda" (probation of striving). When it reaches
its zenith then the revelation process begins which is known as "Mukashfa" (the uplifting of veil). At this stage the attainments
of the saint (or Sufi) are so exquisite that he emerges his identify in the will of God, the creator, and the reactions are
visible and affect the code and conduct of human beings. The effort by which each stage is gained is called 'haal' (state).
It is a state of joy or desire and when the seeker is in this condition he falls into 'wajd' (ecstasy).
Islam And Sufism > Philosophy Of Sufism> Basis Of Sufism
history of Sufism reveals that this particular branch of Divine knowledge originated and developed under conditions of strict
discipline of quietism, seclusion, renunciation and incessant devotion to prayers under the guidance of a 'Murshid' or spiritual
preceptor. In the popular sense, Sufism is known as mysticism in the West but it is not at par with the conception which the
word 'Sufism' actually carries in Islamic parlance. One of the advantages of this cult is that its follower speedily discovers
all the mysteries of Nature for the benefit of mankind. Its greatest gospel is to Live and Let live' and to bestow undiscriminating
affection upon all mankind. It caters for the real peace and spiritual needs of the people who are generally sick of the material
world and seek a spiritual asylum. To be brief, unless one is a God's chosen man endowed with the inherent natural spark of
Divine love, pity and religious devotion, and is also fit for the necessary hard Mujahedas (probation and strivings) one cannot
become a prefect Sufi.
Brief History Of Sufism
The origin of the term Sufi is rather complex, but in general it signifies one who wears the garment of ''suf'' i.e. wool.
In the beginning it was a mark of personal penitence though some early Muslims, like Ibn Sirin (died 729 AD) criticised the
ascetics for wearing Suf in imitation of Jesus Christ. He said, "I prefer to follow the example of the Prophet who dressed
in cotton." In the second century of Islam a particular group of ascetics of Kufa were generally called al-Sufiya due to their
dress. But, by 4th century wearing of woolen garments became the recognised badge of the Sufis of Iraq and hence the term
was commonly applied to all Muslim mystics. In the same century, groups of these a sites used to assemble to recite aloud
the holy Quran and other religious pieces which practice gradually took on a liturgical character called Zikr evolving into
spiritual concerts named Sama (now popularly called Qawwali in India) with their attendant perils of extreme ecstatic nervous.
Gradually a change was coming over the general character of Sufism. Its basis was " fear of God and His wrath to come "
with the mystical element of love and adoration. According to a woman saint, Rabia al-Adawiya (died 891 AD) The mainspring
of mysticism is Love. She said, "Love of God had so absorbed me that neither love nor hate for any other things remains in
Sufism In 12th Century
While Imam Ghazali (died 1111) and Abul Qasim Al Qashari (died 1072) laid the basic foundation of Sufism, it was Ghos-ul-Azam,
Mahboob Subhani Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Qadar Gilani (died 1166) who helped to give it a real practical shape by instituting the
famous "Qadaria" silsila of Sufis in Baghdad in the 12th Christian century which did wonders in raising the cult at Sufism
to a glorious pitch in the succeeding generations. Sufism under Hazrat Gilani's spiritual and moral spell created a marvelous
revolution which brought the whole of Afghanistan and its adjoining parts in Islamic fold in a very short time. This was one
of the greatest miracles of Sufism in the history of Islam at a very crucial period. The number of converts after Hazrat Gilani's
every preaching meeting, often exceeded 70,000 necessitating the employment of as many as 400 writers for the registration
of these converts. Other Sufi saints of this century were Sheikh Najeebuddin Abul Qahir Suhrawardy, Sheikh Akbar mohiuddin
Ibn Arabi (1156-1240) and Hazrat Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardy (1144-1234), the last named being the founder of another famous
"Suhrawardia" silsila which Sheikh Saadi embraced in his later years of life. Their services to the cause of Islam proved
exceedingly invaluable and their innumerable writings and speeches helped to rejuvenate the waning spirit of Islam, serving
the cause of Sufism itself as a guiding star for all future generations.
Doctrine Of Sufism And Its Need
After the death of the Prophet the overpowering influence of his religion and sacred traditions dominated the lives of
his succeeding descendants and the Caliphs. During the early period of Islam there was no necessity of any new cult like Sufism.
But, as time passed on a revival of the Islamic influence was deemed necessary and Sufism took it up in right earnest. The
term Sufism denotes nothing but a direct interpretation of the cardinal principles of Islam and certain spiritual practices
to be observed in this process. Its originator Abu Ishaq Shami was the first Sufi who preached this cult which was in conformity
with all the basic principles of Islam.
One of the cardinal principles of the followers of Sufism is the hate of all wealth pomp and show. All great Sufis have
always therefore refused to accept any money or presents from any quarters whatever, and they never went to the glittering
courts of any monarch which made them bold, selfless and independent of all secularism, thus distinguishing them from the
class of the Ulama, who so often succumbed to these temptations. On the contrary, if any ruler or rich person sought an interview
with them they either refused it flatly or gave them illuminating sermons, bluntly reminding them of their misdeeds and instructing
them to realise and follow their duties and responsibilities to the cause of Islam and the Holy Prophet's Shariat. Once Khalifa
Abu Muzaffar Yusuf of Baghdad approached Hazrat Gilani for a blissful advice with a present of 10 bags of gold mohurs. This
great Sufi saint contemptuously refused to accept the money but when the Khalifa insisted upon its acceptance he picked up
two of the bags one in each hand, and squeezed them. And as he did so human blood flowed out of them! The great saint said:
"Abu Muzaffar, don't you feel shame in offering me this blood of the poor people?" The Khalifa was dumbfounded and went away
in a shameful disgust.
During the 13th century AD Sufism had gained greater popularity among the masses as the result of the persistent efforts
of the above named Sufi saint. Under the rule of the Ommayads and the Abbassides, secularism had usurped the real spirit of
Islam and had economic, political and social fabric of Islam to pieces resulting in the ultimate downfall of their power itself.
Baghdad, once a flourishing capital, was in the grip of debasing frivolities and revelry. Unbalanced secularism had caused
unprecedented pillage, arson, murder and all round destruction at the hands of Mongols and Tartars. Although this condition
was generally attributed to the intruders' invasions but as a matter of fact it was primarily due to the deterioration of
the spiritual and moral character of the Muslims from top to bottom.
Attendance At Shrine
When these Sufi saints left this world their devotees put up impressive buildings over their tombs (Mazaars) most of which
are attractive monuments of architectural beauty and subdued oriental splendour where Muslims, Hindus, Parsis, Sikhs, and
their beneficiaries pay loving homage to their immortal glory all the year round, and receive all sorts of benedictions even
to this day. On the occasions of their death anniversaries, which are called Urs, the gatherings in many cases run from thousands
to lakhs, according to the popularity of the saint. Religious ceremonies are performed on these occasions and the poor and
the needy are fed liberally. Of the numerous Sufi saints of India, Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chisty of Ajmer, (the founder
of Sufism in this country) Hazrat Makhdoom Allauddin Saabir of Kalyar and Hazrat Baba Fariduddin Ganj Shakar of Pak Patan
are the most celebrated. But each Indian province from North to South and East to West has one or more monumental shrines
of its own Sufi saints whose benedictions have left an impressive mark upon the people of those parts and whose blessings
they still enjoy year after year.
Islam And Sufism > Philosophy Of Sufism> Divine Love
important feature of Sufi belief was divine love. From the time of Rabia Al-Adawiya (died 801 AD). It had become the mainstream
of Sufism while in India it had become the dominant feature of the popular Bhakti movement. Love they said was both the causes
as well as the effect of gnosis. A person was likely to achieve gnosis as a result of divine blessing only when he had devotion
for God. While a person who had achieved gnosis could not help being overwhelmed and overpowered by cosmic emotion (jazba)
and divine love. Love, according to them was emotive force of life in fact raison d’Ítre. This powerful emotion dominated
every thought or sentiment, contemplative life, theology, ritual thought of heaven and hell and all else. "The heart of a
mystics is a blazing furnace of love which burns and destroys everything that comes into it because no fire is stronger than
the fire of love", says Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty. Love implied an illuminative life a state of continued communion with Reality
(haal). The object of life was indifferently described as apologetic vision (sometimes used in spiritual sense at others in
a physical sense), nearness to God, annihilation (fana), everlasting life in God (baqa) and ultimately absorption or union
(wassail). It was only on the achieves tranquillity by falling into the sea? Thus when the lover finds the beloved he no longer
The natural outcome of such an outlook was a religion of ecstatic fervour and intoxication (Sukr). Such an attitude of
mind could best be produced by and then find satisfaction in liturgical practices (Azkaar-Zikr-e-khafi, zikr-e-jail), spiritual
concerts or audition (sama), and other forms of auto hypnosis. Because of the efforts of Khawaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki,
Sufi Hameeduddin Nagauri and Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi, 'sama' became a cranial feature of the Chishty silsila and
brought it in occasional conflicts with the orthodox Ulama.
The mystic belief in gnosis and love is usually accompanied by characteristic ethics. The Sufis had fully followed and
systematised certain ethical concepts before Islam came to India. The Indian Sufism merely reiterated these beliefs although
there was difference in the degree of emphasis. The basis of the Sufi attitude is that the Veil which hides Reality from mankind
is that of Bashariyat, (creature hood). The nature of man consists of sensual, intellectual and spiritual features. Intellect,
according to them performed a restricted function. The central pivot of spiritual life was the Qalb (heart) or the Rooh (soul).
They were regarded as ethereal in nature and hence capable of communion with God. This function however could never be performed
until the heart was purified of the dirt of sensual or lower self called in Sufi terminology the nafs (appetitive soul). The
struggle against nafs regarded as wholly evil, therefore, became one of the main concerns of the Sufis. This implied an outlook
of renunciation, penitence, asceticism, poverty, self-mortification and quietism-in short, other worldliness. This other worldliness
was never interpreted strictly and the Chishty product recommended more an outlook of another-worldliness than actually going
away from society.
The idea among the nobler minds in the world of Islam, that there is a deeper and more inward sense in the words of the
Quran arose not from the wish to escape from the rigour of ' texts and dogmas', but from a profound conviction that those
words mean more, not less than the popular expounders supposed them to convey. This conviction combined with a deep feeling
of Divine pervasion, a feeling originating from and in perfect accordance with the teachings of the Quran and the instruction
of the Prophet led to the development among the Muslims of that contemplative idealistic philosophy which has received the
name of Sufism. The appeal of which among the Mohammedans was probably assisted by the prevalence of Neo-Platonic ideas. Imam-al-Ghazzali
in the East and Ibn Tufail in the West were the two great representatives of mysticism among the Muslims.
Islam And Sufism > Philosophy Of Sufism > Ulema Sufi Clash
- Sufi Clash
At first the leaders of mysticism were supposed to be the Ulema or orthodox religious teachers but by the end of 3rd century
they were replaced mostly by middle classes, specially from the mixed half Persian and half Arabian population of Baghdad,
who followed Sufism. Against the political revolutionary aims of Shia'ite propagandists the Ulema protested vehemently. Their
programme of reform included the awakening of religious conscience of individuals and the spiritual revival of the social
organisation of the community. These social implications were reinforced by the labours of Sufis in preaching and converting,
firstly members of their own class or followers and secondly carrying on their missionary work for Islam in other distant
lands. For all times and in all countries these Sufi ascetics were the most active and powerful propagandists of Islam and
it was none but Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty of Sanjar who introduce the Chishtia silsila (order) of Sufis in India and
did such a wonderful service to the cause of Islam.
For the above reasons the orthodox Ulema began to suspect the new social implications of the Sufi movement in Islam and
a rift seemed to be widening between Sufism and orthodoxy. Serious attempts were made to silence the Sufis and on failure
an example of punishment was set of one prominent Sufi Mansur al-Hallaj, who was charged with heresy in having identified
himself with God and was cruelty executed in the beginning of the 4th century. This punishment was not inflicted by any violent
fanatics but by pious upholders of the ancient Faith like the Good Wazir' Ale-ibn-Isa. Repression however proved futile and
the Sufi movement continued firmly based as it was on both the open and 'secret' teachings of Quran and the moral standards
of Islam. Despite the adverse views of the learned layers, the tendency towards the neglect of the ritual prescriptions and
the outside influence clashing with the traditional outlook of Islam the strength of Sufism lay in the satisfaction which
it gave to the religious instincts of the people, instincts which were chilled or starved by the rigid and impersonal teachings
of orthodox Ulema but which found more relief in the directly personal and emotional approach of Sufism.
It must be remembered that this popular character and appeal of Sufism arose out of the ranks of the people themselves
and appealed to the people whose main reading matter was furnished by short lives of the saints often replete with their miraculous
deeds. It was the unceasing labours of the mystics ascetic or Sufis that gave to Islam its widespread permanent hold upon
the masses and that plated such a conspicuous part in spreading the Divine Message among new and fertile lands rather than
the slow work of purely orthodox Ulema or their system of propagation.
During the 4th and 5th centuries, Sufism grew in strength in spite of the frowning Ulema it was in this period that the
Zikr and Sama from their simple congregational recitation and meditation over the Quran began to show more definite liturgical
tendency marked specially by the recitation of chants and litanies. But it was not this difference alone that marked off Sufism
from the orthodox services as similar liturgical ceremonies were commonly performed in the mosques as well. The hostility
of the theologians was however due partly to their fear that the Sufi Zikr might replace the mosque as the center of religious
life. There was also a more deeper and selfish reason for the conflict, the traditional exclusive claim of the possession
of sciences of theology and law and their position as the sole authoritative exponents of the Islamic doctrine-sciences which
they had built up by infinite trouble and whose acquisition involved long and arduous study. They maintained that it was by
their means that the substances of Faith had been preserved against both heretical innovations in doctrine and the attempts
of the secular arm to override its privileges and obligations.
Naturally the theologians were proud of their system and jealous for the maintenance of their authority. They held that
it was by this method alone that they were able to propagate Islam and promote its cause and that any relaxation would open
the way to heresy and corruption both spiritual and material. But the Sufis rejected these claims bluntly and even derisively.
According to them there was only one way to knowledge which lay through the direct and personal experience called "Marifat"
culminating in momentary union with or absorption into the Godhead and not through the rational and second hand knowledge
or ilm of the scholastic type. They thought, theology instead of assisting their process. Actually hindered it. The conflict
between the doctrinaire and the seeker or follower of the Inner Light therefore seemed irreconcilable.
Islam And Sufism > Philosophy Of Sufism > Sufism Triumphed
The outside influences and doctrines implied in Sufism in these formative centuries, were also suspected
by the Ulema. Apart from the various orthodox rules and concepts of Islam the exaltation which the holy Prophet Mohammed enjoyed
also appeared to be eclipsing against the overwhelming veneration accorded to Sufi sheikhs in their lifetime and their elevation
to sainthood after death. Nothing could, therefore be more intolerable and repugnant to the primitive ideas of Islam and the
system of their maintenance by the Ulema but in the teeth of Quran. Tradition, rationalism and orthodox theology the worship
of Sufi saints irresistibly crept into the Islamic fold, and eventually swept everything before it. As time went on popular
elements of Sufism established themselves more and more firmly in the Islamic fold. More and more religious minded people
also joined the ranks of Sufi mystics who sought not metaphysical knowledge of religion but living experience of God. During
the 5th century there was a marked drift towards Sufism of some of the ablest thinkers of Islam. Ultimately principle of compromise
between orthodoxy and Sufism was inevitably sought with the result that a celebrated theologian Al-Qushari (died 1072 AD)
wrote a treatise urging the cause of the higher Sufism and the acceptance of the doctrine of ecstatic communion with God.
The actual revolution is however linked with the name of Imam al-Ghazale (died 1111 AD) who stands high in his religious insight
and intellectual ability and who dived deep into mystics sciences and philosophies. He changed his convictions again and again
in his long religious experiments and research. First, he revolted against the casuistry of the theologians and incessantly
sought ultimate reality through all the Muslim religious systems and philosophies of his time.
After a prolonged bodily mental and intellectual struggle he finally fell from sheer philosophic agnosticism upon his personal
experience of God which he found only in the Sufi path. To his school of thought belonged such Sufi giants as Maulana Rum
the author of the celebrated Masnavi (one of the most authentic works on Sufism) Hazrat Junaid Baghdadi, Maulana Shibli, Maulana
Fariduddin Attaar, Khaqani, Shamsuddin Haafiz Shirazi (one of the greatest Persian Sufi poets in the East) Sheikh Sa'adi and
others. Both Imam al-Ghazali and the stalwart Al-Qushari forged a synthesis that ultimately accommodated the essential principles
of Islam between orthodoxy and Sufism which were thus tied to one and the other forever though their paths remained different.
Islam And Sufism > Philosophy Of Sufism > Sufism In India
Iraq and Persia, Sufism perpetrated into India with Hazarat Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty where it found a very congenial soil
to prosper after some stubborn opposition. With its advent a large number of Sufi saints sprang up all over the land, doing
invaluable service by their solacing influence to the afflicted humanity irrespective of caste or creed. It was this indiscriminating
service to the cause of the suffering humanity and peace that won the hearts of the people of India and made the Sufis highly
popular among all classes of people from a peasant to the prince. Not only this but even after their death, they are still
held in high reverence, a thing which is unknown in other countries. This unflinching devotion is of course not with out any
reason; there must be "something" very real and serious to come and end it?
Islam And Sufism > Philosophy Of Sufism > Meritorious Contribution
Sufism in spite of its loftiness in religious ideals has been less fastidious and more ready to accept
alien practices and ideas provided they produced good results. Blended with Sufism the orthodox couch was undoubtedly refreshed
and strengthened and in fact acquired a more popular character and attraction in Islam. Sufism in Western Asia, North Africa,
won over large multitudes to Islam. Central Asia, India and Indonesia. In the wake of Sufism, Shia'ism also suffered an eclipse
and lost much of its original influence. On the whole Sufism has made a meritorious and invaluable contribution to the promotion
and prosperity of Islam in the world.
Islam And Sufism > Philosophy Of Sufism > Sufism Defined
implies "Iqtida" i.e. to adhere strictly to the laws of Shariat. It means highly pious and enlightened way of life which may
be expressed in conformity with thought and action as explained below:
(a) `Qualan’ i.e. expression through ‘Shariat’ or the Divine Law (ordained for the harmonious conduct
of man in this world with promise of his salvation in the next.)
(b) `Failan’ or ‘Tariqat’ i.e. expression through human activity and discipline under the said Divine
Law or ‘Shariat.
(c) "Haalan" or Haqiqat i.e. the ‘state ‘ acquired by acting upon and passing through Qualan and Failan stages
reaching the zenith of the spiritual perfection.
While the Qualan and Failan stages can be analysed or expressed through the human faculties, the expression of Haalan ‘Haqiqat’
or ‘Reality’ is beyond the scope of all human conception and is therefore inexpressible and indescribable because
human intellect or faculties are restricted to a ‘limit and transcend no more. This is the highest and final stage of
Sufism in which the aspirant is face to face with the ‘Divine Light ‘ and ultimately merges his identity with
God Supreme. It is therefore a state, the secrets of which have never been divulged to the humanity at large without Sufism
entitles.A Persian couplet describes this ‘state’ as follows "Aan raa ke Khabar shud Khabarash baaz nayamad."
i.e. nobody ever heard of them who dived deep into the secrets of God or the mysteries of Nature.
Islam And Sufism > Philosophy Of Sufism > Ma'Arifat
emphasised that ultimate Reality could be grasped only intuitively (Ma'arifat or gnosis). It was veiled from the human eye
and intellect, and constituted a mystery which could be apprehended by none but the advanced spirits. Although they described
in vivid details how Ma'arifat could be achieved they never concerned themselves with the nature of the Reality. There are
clear traces of belief of pantheism and of monism, although in general they believed in a transcendental omnipotent God as
the Creator of the universe.
The intuitive or esoteric experience or Reality implied that parallel to the orthodoxy or "external" theology, there was
also an "internal" or spiritual interpretation of the Holy Quran and of the actions prescribed by the Law. This spiritual
interpretation was necessity subjective, intuitive and esoteric. But this is a very delicate point to be discussed by a layman.
Only the advanced Sufis or Saints, who are now rare, can interpret them satisfactorily in the light of their own practical
experience. No one in the present scientific civilisation can either understand or convince easily the average man on these
Islam And Sufism > Philosophy Of Sufism>The Process
to Islamic conception a Sufi is one who is fired with Divine live and who as a true devotee of God and is constantly impatient
to seek nearness to HIM. The quest of a Sufi centers round the exploration or probe into the mysteries of the nature. He is
whole-heartedly engrossed in seeking out the myriad truths of the TRUTH, and concentrates on the hard task of reconciling
his action to his thoughts. This is an extremely difficult process. He has, first of all to suppress or subdue his worldly
desires inherent in the soul of man called Nafs in order to attain purity and steadfastness in his character. After attaining
this stage, he enters the second phase of building up his external and internal character through mental exercises as the
result of which the knowledge of the hidden mysteries of Nature or God is revealed unto him. To summarise the whole process
of Sufism, the true path of a Sufi's salvation lies through the thorny wilderness of renunciation, self-mortification on and
annihilation of the Nafs by incessant devotion to God. Thus a Sufi aspirant has to under go a rigid test in morals and by
acquiring a perfect knowledge of the Quran and Islamic theology. Also strict adherence to the Muslim law of jurisprudence
called 'Fiqah' and 'Hadith' which deal with the moral, social, economic, and political aspects of Muslim life, he reaches
his goal ultimately.
Shariat And Tariqat
The basis of the teachings of the early Sufis was a clear distinction between the real and the apparent, between the external
and the internal, between the formal and the spiritual. The codes of beliefs and behaviour prescribed in the two were the
Shariat which they called 'external science' and the Tariqat (the path or way) or the 'internal' or "spiritual science". The
starting point of the spiritual progress, they argued was the Shariat but their distinctive contribution to the religious
life of the Muslims was the emphasis which they laid on Tariqat. They bypassed the abstract and colourless scholastic discussions
of faith and ritual, and supplemented the inspiring orthodox attitude of commands and prohibitions with an "emotive principal
and a living religious experience." In orthodox Islam, these features had become subordinated. By emphasising them the Sufis
sought to restore the religious balance and brought Islam into greater harmony with the prevailing Indian traditions.